The Eye

  1. aque/o
  2. blephar/o
  3. conjunctiv/o
    conjunctiva (to joing together)
  4. corne/o, kerat/o
  5. cycl/o
    circle, ciliary body
  6. ir/o, irid/o
    colored circle, iris
  7. lacrim/o, dacry/o
  8. ocul/o, ophthalm/o, opt/o
  9. phac/o, phak/o
    lens (lentil)
  10. phot/o
  11. presby/o
    old age
  12. retin/o
  13. scler/o
    hard or sclera
  14. vitre/o
  15. -opia
    condition of vision
  16. anterior chamber
    fluid-filled space between the cornea and iris
  17. aqueous humor
    water liquid secreted by the ciliary processes that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye and provides nourishment for the cornea, iris, and lens
  18. canal of Schlemm
    duct in the anterior chamber that carries filtered aqueous humor the veins and bloodstream
  19. choroid
    vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to the outer portion of the retina
  20. ciliary body
    ring of tissue behind the peripheral iris that is composed of ciliary muscle and ciliary processes
  21. ciliary muscle
    smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near vision
  22. ciliary processes
    epithelial tissue folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body that secrete aqueous humor
  23. conjunctiva
    mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and outer surface of the eyeball
  24. cornea
    transparent, anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus a visual image
  25. eyelid/palpebra
    movable, protective fold that opens and closes, covering the eye
  26. fovea centralis
    pinpoint depression in the center of the macula lutea that is the site of sharpest vision
  27. fundus
    interior surface of the eyeball, including the retina, optic disk, macula, and posterior pole
  28. glands of Zeis
    oil glands surrounding the eyelashes
  29. meibomian glands
    oil glands located along the rim of the eyelids
  30. iris
    colored circle; colored part of the eye located behind the cornea that contracts and dilates to regulate light passing through the pupil
  31. lacrimal gland
    gland located in the upper outer region above the eyeball that secretes tears
  32. lacrmal ducts
    tubes that carry tears to the lacrimal sac
  33. lacrimal sac
    structure that collects tears before emptying into the nasolacrimal duct
  34. lens
    transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays on the retina
  35. lens capsule
    capsule that encloses the lens
  36. macula lutea/macula
    central region of the retina; responsible for central vision; yellow pigment provides its color
  37. nasolacrimal duct
    passageway for tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose
  38. optic disk
    exit site of retinal nerve fibers as well as entrance point for retinal arteries and exit point for retinal veins
  39. optic nerve
    nerve responsible for carrying impulses for the sense of sigh from the retina to the brain
  40. posterior chamber
    space between the bakc of the iris and the front of the vitreous chamber; filled with aqueous humor
  41. pupil
    black, circular opening in the center of the iris through which light passes as it enters the eye
  42. retina
    innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve
  43. cones
    cone-shaped cells within the retina that are color sensitive and respond to bright light
  44. rods
    rod-shaped cells within the retina that respond to dim light
  45. scera
    touch, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve
  46. trabecular meshwork
    mesh-like structure in the anterior chamber that filters the aqueous humor as it flows into the canal of Schlemm
  47. vitreous
    jelly-like mass filling the inner chamber betwene the lens and retina that gives bulk to the eye
  48. asthenopia
  49. blepharospasm
    involuntary contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye causing uncontrolled blinking and lid squeezing
  50. diplopia
    double vision
  51. exophthalmous or exophthalmus
    abnormal protrusion of one or both eyeballs
  52. lacrimation
    secretion of tears
  53. nystagmus
    involuntary, rapid, oscullating movement of the eyeball
  54. photophobia
    extreme sensitivity to, and discomfort from, light
  55. scotoma
    blind spot in vision
  56. refractive errors
    defects in the bending of light as it enters the eye, causing and improper focus on the retina
  57. astigmatism
    distorted vision caused by an oblong or cylindrical curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina
  58. hyperopia
    farsightedness; difficulty seeing close objects when light rays are focused on a point behind the retina
  59. myopia
    nearsightedness; difficulty seeing distant objects when light rays are focused on a point in front of the retina
  60. presbyopia
    impaired vision caused by old age or loss of accommodation
  61. accommodation
    ability of the eye to adjust focus on near objects
  62. amblyopia
    decreased vision in early life b/c of a functional defect that can occur as a result of strabismus, refractive erros
  63. aphakia
    absence of the lens, usually after cataract extraction
  64. blepharitis
    inflammation of the eyelid
  65. blepharochalasis/dermatochalasis
    baggy eyelid; overabundance and loss of skin elasticity on the upper eyelid causing a fold of skin to hang down over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open
  66. blepharoptosis/ptosis
    drooping of the eyelid; usually caused by paralysis
  67. chalazion
    chronic nodular inflammation of a meibomian gland, usually the result of a blocked duct; commonly presents as a swelling on the upper or lower eyelid
  68. cataract
    opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision
  69. conjunctivitis
    pinkeye; inflammation of the conunctiva
  70. dacryoadenitis
    inflammation of the lacrimal gland
  71. dacryocystitis
    inflammation of the tear sac
  72. diabetic retinopathy
    disese of the retina in diabetics characterized by capillary leakage, bleeding, and new vessel formation leading to scarring and loss of vision.
  73. ectropion
    outward turning of the rim of the eyelid
  74. entropion
    inward turning of the rim of the eyelid
  75. epiphora
    abnormal overflow of tears caused by blockage of the lacrimal duct
  76. glaucoma
    group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision
  77. hordeolum
    sty; an acute infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid
  78. iritis
    inflammation of the iris
  79. keratitis
    inflammation of the cornea
  80. macular degeneration
    breakdown or lining of the tissues in the macula, resulting in partial or complete loss of central vision
  81. pseudophakia
    an eye in which the natrual lens is replaced with an artificial lens implant
  82. pterygium
    fibrous, wing-shaped growth of conjunctival tissue that extends onto the cornea, developing most commonly from prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light
  83. retinal detachment
    separation of the retina from the underlying epithelium, disrupting vision and resulting in blindness if not repaired surgically
  84. retinitis
    inflammation of the retina
  85. strabismus/ heterotropia
    a condition of eye misalignment caused by intraocular muscle imbalance
  86. esotropia
    right or left eye deviates in inward, toward nose
  87. exotropia
    right or left eye deviates outward, away from nose
  88. scleritis
    inflammation of the sclera
  89. trichiasis
    misdirected eyelashes that rub on the conjunctiva or cornea
  90. distance visual acuity
    measure of the ability to see the details and shape of identifiable objects from a specified distance, usually from 20 ft; normal distance visual acuity is 20/20
  91. fluorescein angiography
    visualization and photography of retinal and choroidal vessels made as fluorescein dye, which is injected into a vein, circulates through the eye
  92. ophthalmoscopy
    use of an aphthalmoscope to view the interior of the eye
  93. slit lamp biomicroscopy
    use of a tabletop microscope used to examine the eye, especially the cornea, lens, fluids, and membranes
  94. sonography
    use of high-frequency sound waves to detect pathology within the eye
  95. tonometry
    use of a tonometer to measure intraocular pressure, which is elevated in glaucoma
  96. blepharoplasty
    surgical repair of an eyelid
  97. cataract extraction
    excision of a cloudy lens form the eye
  98. cryoretinopexy/ cryopexy
    use of intense cold to seal a hole or tear in the retina; used to treat retinal detachment
  99. dacryocystectomy
    excision of a lacrimal sac
  100. enucleation
    excision of an eyeball
  101. iridectomy
    excision of a portion of iris tissue
  102. iridotomy
    incision into the iris (usually with a laser) to allow drainage of aqueous humor from the posterior to anterior chamber; used to treat a type of glaucoma
  103. keratoplasty
    corneal transplantation; replacement of a diseased or scarred cornea with a healthy one form a matched donor
  104. laser surgery
    use of a laser to make incisions or destroy tissues; used to create fluid passages or obliterate tumors, aneurysms
  105. laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASK)
    a technique using the excimer laser to reshape the surface of the cornea to correct refractive error
  106. intraocular lens (IOL) implant
    implantation of an artificial lens to replace a defective natural lens
  107. phacoemulsification
    use of ultrasound to shatter and break up a cataract, with aspiration and removal
  108. scleral buckling
    surgery to treat retinal detachment by placing a band of silicone around the sclera to cinch it toward the middle of the eye and relieve pull on the retina; often combined with other techniques to seal retinal tears
  109. contact lens
    small, plastic, curved disk with optical correction that fits over the cornea; used to correct refractive errors
  110. eye instillation
    introduction of a medicated solution in the eye; usually administered by a drop (gt) or drops (gtt) in the affected eye or eyes
  111. eye irrigation
    washing of the eye with water or fluid
  112. antibiotic ophthalmic solution
    antimicrobial agent in solution; used to treat bacterial infections
  113. cycloplegic
    agent that paralyzes the ciliary muscle and the powers of accommodation; commonly used in pediatric eye examinations
  114. mydriatic
    agent that caused dilation of the pupil; used for certain eye examinations
  115. miotic
    agent that causes the pupil to contract
  116. IOL
    intraocular lens
  117. LASIK
    laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis
Card Set
The Eye
med terms ch 10