1. Acute Effect
    The effect caused by a short exposure to a high level of toxin.
  2. Catalytic Converter
    A platinum-coated device that oxidizes most of the VOCs and some of the CO that would otherwise be emitted in exhaust, converting them to CO2.
  3. Closed-Loop Recycling
    • When materials, such as plastic or aluminum, are used to rebuild the same product.
    • An example of this is the use of the alumnimum from aluminum cans to produce more aluminum cans.
  4. Building-Related Illness
    When the signs and symptoms of an illness can be attributed to a specific infectious organism that resides in teh building.
  5. Chronic Effect
    An effect that results from long-term exposure to low levels of toxin.
  6. Deep Well Injection
    Drilling a hole in the ground that's below the water table to hold waste.
  7. Dose-Response Analysis
    A process in which an organism is exposed to a toxin at different concentrations, and the dosage that causes the death of the organism is recorded.
  8. ED50
    The point at which 50% of the test organisms show a negative effect from a toxin.
  9. Gray Smog
    Industrial Smog
  10. Heat Islands
    Urban areas that heat up more quickly and retain heat better than nonurban areas.
  11. LD50
    The point at which 50% of the test organisms die from a toxin.
  12. Leachate
    The liquid that percolates to the bottom of a landfill.
  13. Noise Pollution
    Any noise that causes stress or has the potential to damage human health.
  14. Open-Loop Recycling
    When materials are reused to form new products.
  15. Poison
    Any substance that has an LD50 of 50 mg or less per kg of body weight.
  16. Physical Treatment
    In a sewage treatment plant, the inital filtration that is done to remove debris such as stones, sticks, rags, toys, and other objects that were flushed down the toilet.
  17. Primary Pollutants
    Pollutants that are released directly into the lower atmoshpere.
  18. Primary Treatment
    • When physically treated sewage water is passed into a setling tank, where suspended solids settle out as sludge.
    • Chemically treated polymers may be added to help the suspended solids separate and settle out.
  19. Secondary Pollutants
    Pollutants that are formed by the combination of primary pollutants in the atmosphere.
  20. Secondary Treatment
    The biological treatment of wastewater in order to continue to remove biodegradable waste.
  21. Sick Building Syndrome
    When the majority of a building's occupants experience certain symptoms that vary with the amount of time spent in the building.
  22. Sludge
    The solids that remain after the sevondary treatment of sewage.
  23. Sludge Processor
    A tank filled with aerobic bacteria that's used to treat sewage.
  24. Superfund Program
    A program funded by the federal government and a trust that's funded by taxes on chemicals; identifies pollutants and cleans up hazardous waste sites.
  25. Threshold Dose
    The dosage level of a toxin at which a negative effect occurs.
  26. Tropospheric Ozone
    Ozone that exists in the tropsphere.
  27. U.S. Noise Control Act
    Gave the EPA power to set emission standards for major sources of noise, including transportation, machinery, and construction.
  28. Vector
    The carrier organism through which pathogens can attack.
  29. Waste-to-Energy Program
    When the energy released from waste incineration is used to generate electricity.
  30. Factors of Substance Harmfulness
    • Dosage amount over a period of time
    • number of times of exposure
    • size or age of the organism that is exposed
    • ability of the body to detoxify that substance
    • organism's sensitivity to the substance
    • synergistic effect.
  31. Criteria Pollutants
    • Carbon monoxide
    • Lead
    • Ozone
    • nitrogen dioxide
    • sulfur dioxide
    • particulate matter
  32. Carbon Monoxide
    • odorless, colorless gas that's typically released by incompletely burned material.
    • Binds irreversibly to hemoglobin, which is the molecule responsible for transporting oxygen to lungs.
  33. Lead
    • Pollutant that is released as particulate, but settles in land and water.
    • When eventually consumed, it causes nevous disorders, including mental retardation.
  34. Tropospheric Ozone
    • Secondary pollutant formed by the interaction of nitrogen oxides, heta, light, VOCs.
    • Poisonous, and a major component of smog.
  35. Nitrogen Dioxide
    • Formed when atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen react as a result of exposure to high temperatures.
    • Released from combustion engines.
  36. Sulfur Dioxide
    • Colorless gas with a suffocating odor, respiratory irritant.
    • released through the combustion of coal.
    • Reacts with water vapor to produce acid rain.
  37. VOC
    Volatile Organic Compounds, which are released through industrial processes.
  38. Smog
    Produced when the burning of CO and CO2 mix with particulate matter.
  39. Photochemical Smog
    • Produced by NOx, VOCs, and ozone combine to form smog with a brownish hue.
    • The intensity of sunlight on photochemical smog accelerates the creation of ozone.
  40. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
    • Man-made chemicals used in aerosols.
    • Once released, they migrate to the stratosphere, where UV breaks them down that releasees chlorine atoms that break apart ozone
    • Significantly reduced by the Montreal Protocol
  41. Effects of Acid Rain
    • Leaches minerals from the soil.
    • Builds up sulfur in the soil.
    • Increases aluminum concentration in soil and water, which is toxic.
    • Lowers pH of bodies of water, killing life there.
  42. Radon
    • Second leading cause of lung cancer in the U.S.
    • Gas emitted by uranium as it undergoes radioactive decay.
  43. Temperature Inversion
    • Air pollutatnts become trapped over cities beacause they are not able to rise into the atmosphere.
    • In normal atmospheric conditions, the warm polluted air over a city rises into the cooler atmosphere.
    • In an inversion, the air above the city is warm, and blocks the polluted air from rising.
  44. Eutrophication
    • Overgrowth of zooplankton and phytoplankton caused by runoff of excess nutrients.
    • Deprives water of dissolved oxygen.
  45. Hypoxic Zone
    A water zone in which nothing that depends on oxygen can grow.
  46. Water Pollution sources.
    • Biggest source is agricultural activities.
    • Followed by mining and industrial activities.
  47. Why Groundwater Doesnt' Recover from Pollution
    • No evaporation
    • Little movement.
    • Cold, which slows biodegradation.
    • Low Oxygen, which slows beiodegradation
  48. Tertiary Treatment
    • Involves passing secondary treated wastewater through a series of sand and carbon filters, and then further chlorination.
    • Expensive, but valuable in arid regions.
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