ch 12

  1. explain motivation from perspective of behavioral learning theory
    • Motivation is due to reinforcement and rewards.
    • Motivation effects your behavior
    • if motivated more engaged to accomplish goals
  2. Define Extrinsic motivation
    • Do something to get reward
    • Positive reinforcement
  3. Example of extrinsic motivation
    • Do homework to get video game time
    • work to get $
  4. Definie intrinsic motivation
    motivated because you love it
  5. examples of intrinsic motivation
    • read books because you love to read
    • volunteer because love working with kids
  6. disadvantages of using external rewards too much
    4 things
    • behavior change is only temporary
    • stops when reward stops
    • materialistic attitude toward learning
    • lessen intrinsic motivation if they had it
  7. external rewards that increase intrinsic motivation
    • initial interst is low because task is perceived as boring
    • initial interest is high and reward by positive feedback
    • most desireable reward is available to everyone ie A+
  8. recommendations for use of rewards on intrinsic behavior
    • reward sparingly
    • only if completed entire task
    • no competitions
    • everyone can get highest grade
  9. explain motivation from a cognitive development perspective
    • People learn by observation
    • If they see someone being reward they will complete that task.
  10. Social cognitive view-
    two factors that influence motivation
    • 1. Vicarious reinforcement
    • -expectation to receive same reward that we see someoen else getting
    • 2. individuals sense of self efficacy
    • - belief about ones ability to perform task
  11. three ways self-efficacy can affect students motivation to learn
    • 1. goal setting
    • 2. outcome expectations
    • 3. attributions
  12. correlation between self efficacy and motivation
    If students believe can accomplish then they wll be more motivated to try

    • SE low, fails=motivation low
    • SE low, succeeds= thinks lucky
  13. cognitive views of motivation
    • developmental
    • need for achievement
    • attribution theory
    • beliefs about ability
    • effect of interes on intrinsic motivation
  14. Cognitive-Developmental
    • motivation is influenced by need to master the work
    • assimilation
    • -fitting into existing scheme
    • accomodation
    • -changing existing scheme to incorporate experience
  15. Need for achievement
    • motivation is influenced by one's expectation for success.
    • achievement is dependant on probability of success and incentive
  16. task preferred by high achiever
    • Select moderately difficult tasks
    • Those with high need for success expect succcess more than fear failure
    • if test too easy wont be proud´╗┐
  17. task preferred by low achiever
    • avoid difficult tasks because they fear failure
    • May choose very easy or very hard tasks
  18. Attribution theory
    • Why we did good or bad
    • asking why when trying to understand our successes and failures

    how explanation, justifaction or excuses influence motivation
  19. 3 categories of explanations people make to explain their successes or failures
    • 1. Locus of control
    • 2. Stability
    • 3. Controlability
  20. locus of control
    • associated with self-esteem
    • location of the cause to the person
    • internal-I'm smart
    • external-test was easy
  21. stability
    • whether cause stays same or changes
    • Associated with expectations about the future
    • internal-intelligence
    • external- didn't study enough
  22. Controllability
    • if person can control cause or not
    • related to emotions
    • controllable-didn't study
    • uncontrollable- teacher doesn't like me so I failed
  23. correlation between failure and lack of effort
    and failure and lack of ability
    failure-lack of ability-uncontrollable-not responsible-shame-withdrawl-performance declined

    failure-lack of effort-controllable-guilt-performance improves
  24. what factors do high and low achievers thinks success/failures are caused by
    • high need
    • success due to internal factors-effort and ability
    • failure is external- task too hard
    • Failure doesn't affect self-esteem

    • low need
    • success is external-luck
    • failure is internal-ability
    • doesn't feel responsible even if successful
  25. Beliefs about cognitive ability
    motivation for learning is affected by belief that intelligence is fixed or changeable
  26. three categories based on beliefs about their cognitive ability
    • 1. Entity theorists
    • 2. incremental theorists
    • 3. mixed throrists
  27. entity theorists
    type of goals
    • ability is stable and uncontrollable.
    • look smart by getting good grades
    • Not intrinsicly motivated
    • Performance goals- to gain positive judgement
  28. Incremental theorists
    • Ability is unstable and controllable
    • changing behavior can change ability
    • study more get better grades
  29. mixed theorists
    type of goals
    • enjoy learning and want to perfect skills
    • mastery goals
  30. how do mastery goals and performance goals affect performance?
    • performance goals- avoid challenge
    • mastery- seek callenge
  31. Effect of interest on intrinsic motivation
    • 1. personal- desire to understand topic. Pay more attention
    • 2. Situational interest- temporary. engaging in hands-on-activities. use of games and puzzles. work with others.
  32. Maslow's theory
    people are motivated by unsatified needs

    people try to satisfy certain needs
  33. Maslow's needs
    • Physiological
    • Safety
    • Love and belonging
    • Esteem
    • Self-Actualization
  34. explain Maslow's needs
    • Physiological
    • -survival needs. water, shelter, food
    • Safety
    • -need to feel save in environment
    • Love and belonging
    • -need for affection and to feel part of group
    • Esteem
    • -need to feel good about self and want others to like you
    • Self-Actualization= Self fulfilment
    • -need to become all they are capable of. Seek out new activities
  35. limitation of applying need for achievement in classroom
    • hard to stimulate them
    • difficult to measure
    • time consuming
  36. Role of self-perceptions in motivation
    • self concept- how one feels about what they have accomplished- I am good at sports
    • self esteem- how one feels about themself-I'm cool
    • self efficacy-ability to accomplish task-I'll past the test
  37. role of academic self-concept in motivation
    4 specific areas
    2 levels
    • 4 specific areas
    • -social, physical, emotional, academic
    • 2 levels
    • general-how good in school
    • specific- how good in science
  38. academic self concept and school achievement
    • ASC- how well one does in school
    • positively correlated
    • high ASC = high grades
    • vice versus
    • dont know what causes what
  39. instructional implications
    • design programs aimed at improving academic self concept and achievement
    • achievement can be improved by telling students how well they learned certain skill
    • self concept - teaching them skills
Card Set
ch 12
educational psych