The nitrogenous product that is excreted in high amounts after prolonged acidosis is
A) ammonia.B) glutamine.C) creatinine.D) aspartic acid. E) urea.
A) ammonia (NH3)- basic
- synthesized via normal amino acid metabolism
- toxic in high concentrations
- liver converts ammonia--> urea via urea cycle
- liver dysfunction (cirrhosis) can elevate ammonia in blood
- ammonia imp for acid/base balance
--> glutamine forms ammonium (toxic)--> converts ammonium to urea (less toxic for storage)
--> ammonium--> uric acid in birds, reptiles
Cell bodies of taste fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue are located in which of the following ganglia?
facial n. proper (motor) fibers + nervus intermedius (para and sympathetic fibers)= geniculate ganglion (in facial canal)
The common bile duct, the hepatic artery and the portal vein are found grouped in the
A) greater omentum.
C) gastrosplenic ligament.
D) lesser omentum.
- thin and continuous w/ 2 layers of peritoneum
- contains anterior boundary of epiploic foramen
- divided into ligaments: hepatoesophageal, hepatophrenic, hepatoduodenal, hepatogastric
- GLISSON'S CAPSULE
- fibrous capsule that encloses hepatic a. common bile duct, portal v., lymphatics, hepatic plexus of nerves btwn the 2 layers of lesser omentum
If the spinal tract of the fifth cranial nerve were sectioned at the level of the caudal medulla, which of the following modalities would be most affected?
Sensory innervation of face:
- all sensory info from face relayed through VPM nucleus of thalamus
1. Touch and Pressure
- trigeminal main sensory nucleus
- Dorsal trigeminothalamic tract
2. Pain and Temp
- Spinal trigeminal nucleus
- Ventral trigeminothalamic tract
- VPM, periaqueductal grey, reticular formation
- Mesencephalic nucleus of CN V= only case where primary sensory bodies are located in CNS (not in ganglia!)
- spinocerebellar tract
During intraoral injection to the mandibular foramen, the needle passes through the mucous membrane and the buccinator muscle and lies
A) medial to the superior constrictor muscle of the pharynx.
B) lateral to the pterygomandibular raphe.
C) lateral to the medial pterygoid muscle.
D) lateral to the neck of the mandible.
E) medial to the pterygomandibular raphe.
C lateral to medial pterygoid muscle
Of the following, the most immediate source of oxaloacetic acid during metabolism is
A) glutamic acid.
B) a-ketoglutaric acid.
C) acetoacetic acid.
D) aspartic acid.
D aspartic acid
The lateral boundary of the retropharyngeal space at the level of the oropharynx is the
A) pterygomandibular raphe
.B) medial pterygoid muscle and its fascia.
C) stylopharyngeus muscle and its fascia.
D) carotid sheath.
D carotid sheath
The optic tracts consist of axons from which of the following cells?
2. retina (rods and cones)
3. bipolar neurons
4. GANGLION CELLS
5. optic disc
6. optic n. through optic canal
7. optic chiasm
9. optic radiations
10. visual cortex (area 17) and visual association center 18,19
Dental plaque arises primarily as a result of enzymatic reactions using which of the following?
A) sucrose and saliva
Sucrose--> Glucose (glucans/dextrans) + fructose (levans/fructans) via sucrase
S. mutans and Lactobacillus can ferment these carbohydrates