1. Spring
    GW that flows freely from rock. Where topography (cliff or hillside intersect aquifer.
  2. Perched Water Table
    Small aquifer sitting on an aquitard.
  3. Hot Spring
    6-9 Degrees warmer than average annual air temp.
  4. Geyser
    • Cavenous Limestone
    • Water Fills up caverns
    • Steam erupts & cavern refills
  5. Water Wells
    Drinking water or measuring sample
  6. Cones of Depression
    Regional lowering of water table due to overpumping.
  7. Artesian Wells
    GW flows out without pumping. Inclined rock layers. Confined aquifer.
  8. Confined Aquifers
    Take long time to recharge
  9. Subsidence
    Pure space of aquifer collaspe.Irreversible.
  10. Saltwater contamination
    For every 1 m of WT drop due to cone depression. 40 m of saltwater rises
  11. Groundwater Contamination
    Will contaminates sink or float? GW flow direction. Direction can be reverse by cone of depression.
  12. Caverns
    Limestone dissolved by acid
  13. Karstm Topography
    • Limestone Bedrock
    • Underground Rivers & sinkholes
    • Karst Towers at end
  14. Running Water
    Main erosional agent
  15. Runoff
    Water flowing over the ground surface.
  16. Infilitration
    How much water can be absorbed? Material: rain, slope of land, vegetation.
  17. Drainage Basin
    Area where all runoff drains into a specific river or tributaries.
  18. Tributary
    Small river that drains (empties) into a larger one
  19. Divide
    Elevated ridge separating drainage basins.
  20. Continental Divide
    Separates streams that flows into the pacific from ones that flow into Gulf or Atlantic.
  21. Hydrologic Cycle
    The interchange or movement of water between air, land, and sea. Evaporation, Transpiration, Precipatation, Runoff, and Infilitration
  22. Runoff
    • Sheet flow
    • Rill
  23. Capacity
    • max load of solid particles a stream can
    • transport
  24. Competence
    max particle size a stream can transport
  25. Stream Channels
    • Bedrock Channels
    • Meandering Channels
    • Braided Channels
  26. Base Level
    Lowest elevation to which a stream can erode its channel.. Ultimate level is sea level.
  27. Stream Valley Development
    V-shaped rapids and waterfalls common.
  28. Flood Plains
    Flat area covered w/ sediments when streams flood.
  29. Stream Terraces
    Stream Cuts through flood sediments. sea level change or tectonic uplift causes.
  30. Incised Meanders
    River cuts meanders through rock.
  31. Delta
    Where stream mouth enters a lake or ocean
  32. Alluvial fans
    sediment deposited at base of mountain
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