Anatomy and Physiology Lab

  1. Sturcture that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body
  2. Three modifications of the small intestine that increase the surface area for absorption
    Villi, microvilli, and plicae circulares
  3. Large collections of lymphoid tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine
    Peyer's patches
  4. Mobile organ that initiates swallowing
  5. The "gullet"; lies posterior to the trachea
  6. Valve at the junction of the small and large intestines
    Ileocecal valve
  7. Primary region of the enzymatic digestion
    Small intestine
  8. Membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth
  9. Area between the teeth and lips/cheeks
  10. Wormlike sac that outpockets from the cecum
  11. Carbohydrate (starch) digestion begins here
    Oral cavity
  12. Two-layered serous membrane attached to the greater curvature of the stomach
    Greater omentum
  13. Valve preventing movement of chyme from the duodenum into the stomach
    Pyloric valve
  14. Posterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity
    Soft palate
  15. Location of the hepatopancreatic sphincter through which pancreatic secretions and bile pass
    Small intestine
  16. Outermost layer of a digestive organ in the abdominal cavity
    Visceral peritoneum
  17. Principal site for the synthesis of vitamins (B,K) by bacteria
    Large intestine
  18. Distal end of the alimentary canal
  19. Bone-supported part of roof of the mouth
    Hard palate
  20. Deep folds to the mucosa and submucosa that extend completely or partially around the circumference of the small intestine
    Plicae circulares
  21. Regions that break down food stuffs mechanically
    Oral cavity and stomach
  22. Conduit that serves the respiratory and digestive systems
  23. Surface projections of a mucosal epithelial cell
  24. What reagent was used to show protein (amino acids) digestion?
    What color is it when digestion occurs?
    • Biuret reagent
    • Turns a pink-violet color when digestion occurs
  25. What reagent is used to show the digestion of starches? What color is it when digestions occurs? What color is it when digestion doesn't occur?
    • Iodine-potassium iodide
    • Light brown
    • Purple-black color
  26. What reagent is used to show the digestion of lipids and proteins? What color does it show in the presence of acid (broken down lipids)?
    • Litmus milk
    • Color change is light gray to dark pink-purple
  27. What reagent is used to show absorption in the small intestine? What color does it turn when reacting with glucose?
    • Benedicts solution
    • Red-orange precipitate
  28. What are the layers of the alimentary canal?
    • Mucosa
    • Submucosa
    • Muscularis externa
    • Serosa
  29. Moves food via peristalis and runs from the pharynx to the stomach
  30. Protein digestion (HCL and pepsinogen released from gastric glands) and has a thick mucus layer for protection
  31. Nearly all food absorptions occurs here and has brush border enzymes, pancreatic enzymes, and bile
    Small intestine
  32. Compacts and propels fecal matter to the anus for elimination, provides site for vitamin production, and reclaims water
    Large intestine
  33. Tear and grind food.
    Adults have 32
    Children have 20
  34. What are the functions of the salivary glands and what glands do they consist of?
    • Moistens food and helps bind it together
    • Contain salivary amylase which begins the digestion of starch

    • Parotid glands
    • Submandibular glands
    • Sublingual glands
  35. Produces bile(no enzymes, emulsifies fats and is stored in the gallbladder) and the portal system brings nutrients here (glucose stored as glycogen)
  36. What is the endocrine and excorine functions of the pancreas?
    Endocrine: produces insulin and glucagon

    Exocrine: secretes pancreatic enzymes for lipid, protein, and carbohydrate digestion and secretes an alkaline fluid that netralized acidic chyme
  37. What are the lobes of the liver?
    • right
    • left
    • caudate
    • quadreate (by gallbladder)
  38. Blood in the urine
  39. Hemolytic Anemia
  40. Eating a 5 lb box of candy at one sitting
  41. Pregnancy
  42. Starvation
  43. Urinary Tract Infection
  44. Normal values of urine
    Specific gravity
    Keone bodies
    • Pale yellow
    • Transparent
    • 4.5-8.0
    • 1.001-1.030
    • Negative
    • Negative
    • Negative
    • Negative
    • Negative
  45. What is the functions of the urinary system
    • Remove nitrogenous wastes from the body
    • Kidney maintains electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid balances of the blood
  46. What is the nephron?
    What does it consist of?
    • Functional unit of the kidney
    • Glomerulus(renal tubule and Bowmans capsule)
    • Proximal convuluted tubule
    • Loop of Henle
    • Distal convuluted tubule
    • Collecting duct
  47. Cortical nephron
    Located entirely in the cortex
  48. Juxtamedullary nephron
    Penetrate into the medulla
  49. How do the blood vessels of the urinary system run?
    Renal arteries -->segmental arteries -->lobar arteries -->interlobar arteries -->Arcuate arteries -->cortical radiate arteries -->afferent arterioles -->glomerulus -->efferent aperitubular capillary bed -->cortical radiate veins --> arcuate veins -->interlovar veins -->Renal vein
  50. How does sperm run start to leaving the penis?
    • Seminiferous tubules
    • Epididymus
    • Vas deferens
    • Ejaculatory duct
    • Nothing
    • Urethra
    • Penis
  51. What are the male primary sex organs?
    What is their endocrine and exocrine functions?
    • Testes
    • Sperm production(exocrine)
    • Production of testosterone(endocrine)
  52. What do the other structures of the male reproductive system do?
    Aid in the safe delivery of sperm to the exterior
  53. What is the functions of the reproductive system in general?
    Perpetuate the species
  54. What is the function of the male reproductive system?
    manufacture sperm and deliver them to the femal reproductive tract
  55. What is the function of the female reproductive system?
    maintain a nurturing protective environment for embryo to grow
  56. What covers the testes and what are the cells it contains and what do they produce?
    • Tunica albuginea
    • Interstitial cells
    • Produce testosterone
  57. Site of sperm production
    Seminiferous tubules
  58. Site of sperm maturation
  59. Plays a role in activating sperm
    Prostate gland
  60. Produces a thick alkaline secretion containing fructose
    Seminal vesicles
  61. Produces a thick clear mucus that act to wash residual urine out of the urethra
    Bulbourethral gland
  62. Copulatory orgna of the male
  63. Enlarged tip of the penis
  64. What types of tissue does the penis have?
    • Erectile tissue
    • Corpus spongiosum
    • Corpus cavernosum
  65. Sperm
    • Genetic information(DNA)
    • Metabolic region(mitochondria)
    • Locomotion(flagella)
  66. What is the primary sex organ of the femlae reproductive system and what are their exocrine and endocrive functions?
    • Ovaries
    • Produce eggs(exocrine)
    • Produce estrogen and progesterone(endocrine)
  67. What do the acessory structures of the female reproductive system do?
    Transport, house and nurture developing fetus
  68. What does the external genitalia of the female reproductive system consist of?
    • Labia Majora
    • Labia minora
    • Clitoris
    • Urethral orifice
    • Vaginal orifice
  69. Growing follices produce ________, ruputerd follicle becomes _____ which secretes _______.
    • Estrogen
    • Corpus luteum
    • Progesterone
Card Set
Anatomy and Physiology Lab
A&P 2 Lab Exam #3