How Genes Work (ch 15)

    Basically states that DNA codes for RNA while RNA codes for proteins. The genotype is make up of all the genes and alleles that go with them. The phenotype is observable appearance of genes that have been expressed. Hence, genotypes determine phenotypes.
  2. Exception to the Central Dogma
    • -Viruses
    • -use reverse transcriptase to produce messenger RNA that flows back into the nucleus.
    • -This allows the virus to be able to reproduce by using the cell’s machinery against itself
  3. RNA molecules as another exception to Central Dogma
    -RNA molecules that are never translated into proteins. -MicroRNA is a good example because after it is transcribed, it immediately starts performing its function.
    mRNA molecules are read by the codons that ribosomes can recognize. Codons specify a particular amino acid with a group of three bases.
  5. Things to know about codons:
    • - They are redundant, all but two amino acids can be coded by more than one codon
    • - A single codon never codes for more than one amino acid
    • - The “language” is the same is all organisms
    • - If a mutation occurs in the third base like Uracil and is replaced by Cytosine in a GGU codon, it will still most likely still code for the same amino acid. In this case Glycine.
    The ultimate source of new alleles; this results in the permanent alteration of an individuals genotype, which we know now, will affect the same individuals phenotype.
  7. Types of mutations:
    • -Silent
    • -replacement
    • -nonsense
    • -and frameshift
  8. Silent Mutation
    usually very harmless
  9. Replacement mutations
    may be detrimental if the mutation happened at a crucial place of the protein.
  10. Nonsense mutation
    makes shorter than normal protein chain, therefore they can be detrimental if the protein is an essential one for the cell's functions.
  11. Frameshift Mutations
    cause the protein to change completely because of the addition of wrong bases after the point of mutation.
  12. Anueploidy
    • having the wrong number of homologs in one set of chromosomes.
    • -such as having three homologs for chromose 21 in down syndrome individuals.
  13. Poliyploidy
    • having more than two homologs for all the chromosomes.
    • -such as 3n, 4n, 6n, etc.
    • -instead of normal 2n number.
  14. Inversions
    cause chunks of chromosomes to break and rejoin in inverted position.
  15. Translocations
    cause chunks of chromosomes to break from one chromosome and join another.
  16. Beneficial Mutation
    Beneficial mutations are those that increase the fitness of the individual, allowing the organism to survive better, or produce more offspring
  17. Deleterious Mutations
    which are more likely to occur since organisms are already adapted to their environment, result in the individuals fitness being decreased
  18. Neutral Mutation
    like silent mutations, there is no benefit or harm done on the individual that receives these mutations
Card Set
How Genes Work (ch 15)
Exam 3