ALS 176

  1. What is a superstratum language?
    language of a dominant group
  2. what is a substratum language
    language of a less dominant group
  3. what is a language shift?
    a group of speakers shifts from using a lower prestigerlanguage to a higher prestige language
  4. what is a language death
    occurs when language shift involves the last remaining group of dpeakers of a language
  5. what is are pidgins
    they arise in trading situations where speakers of many languages come together and need some means of communication for the purpose of doing business with one another ** pidigins are not the primart language for any of the users**
  6. what are creoles
    creoles arise as the result of need to forum a primary mode of communicatin- native lanugages for the speakers involved (ex: full-blown languages)
  7. what is the intital staage: prepidgin jargon
    little or no consistent grammar: speaker-to-speaker variation
  8. what is crystalliation
    establishment of grammatical conversations
  9. what are prototypical pidgins
    they emerge abruptly; limited contact(ex: trade); reduced grammar and vocabulary
  10. what are expanded pidigns
    larger lexical and structural resources
  11. what is nativization
    the process by which some variety of speech that was no one's native language is learned by children in a speech community as their first language
  12. what are loan words (calques)
    word for word translations into native morphemes
  13. grammar is actually more complex phonemonon than anything that could ever be taught in school, but never the less every human being masters the grammar of some language
  14. there ae languages that don't have words for right and left but use words for cardinal directions like north and west instead
  15. some aspects of languare appear to be innate
  16. there are more than 6,00 languages spoken in the world, but 90% of the population only speaks 10% of them
  17. turkish amon other languages has a special verb tense used for gossip and hearsay
  18. most sentences that you hear and utter are novel; they ahve never been uttered before
  19. no language is intrinsicallt easier or harder to learn than the other
  20. some languagesstructure sentences by putting the object first and the subject last
  21. there are communities such as the Al-Sayyiad Bedouine tribe, in which all members of the community can use signed language
  22. there is nothing inherient about most words that gives them their meaning any group of speech sounds could ahve any meaning
  23. there are specific structures in tour brain designed to process language
  24. the language you speak affects wheather or not you distinguish between certain sounds
  25. rules like " dont split infinitatives" were invented by people in the 18th century who believed engligh should be more like latin
  26. the same words in the same order don't always mean the same thing
Card Set
ALS 176
linguistics final study guide