Endocrine System

  1. aden/o
  2. adren/o, adrenal/o
    adrenal gland
  3. andr/o
  4. crin/o
    to secrete
  5. dips/o
  6. gluc/o, glucos/o, glyc/o
    glucose (sugar)
  7. hormon/o
    hormone (an urging on)
  8. ket/o, keton/o
    ketone bodies
  9. pancreat/o
  10. thym/o
    thymus gland
  11. thyr/o, thyroid/o
    thyroid gland (shield)
  12. adrenal glands/ suprarenal glands
    located on the superior surface of each kidney; the adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones, and the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
  13. steroid hormones
    hormones secreted by the adrenal cortes
  14. glucocorticoids
    regulate carbohydrate metabolism and have antiinflammatory effects; cortisol is the most significant glucocorticoid
  15. mineral corticosteroids
    maintain salt and water balance
  16. androgens
    influence development and maintenance of male sex characteristics, for example, facial hair, deep voice
  17. catecholamines
    hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that affect the sympathetic nervous system in stress response
  18. epinephrine/ adrenaline
    secreted in response to fear or physical injury
  19. norepinephrine
    secreted in response to hypotension and physical stress
  20. ovaries
    located on both sides of the uterus in the female pelvis; secrete estrogen and progesterone
  21. estrogen
    responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics
  22. progesterone
    regulates uterine conditions during pregnancy
  23. islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
    endocrine tissue within the pancreas
  24. insulin
    a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans that is responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose
  25. glucagon
    a hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans that serves to regulate carbohydrate metabolism by raising blood sugar
  26. parathyroid glands
    two paired glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck; secrete parathyroid hormone
  27. parathyroid hormone
    regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
  28. pineal gland
    located in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin and serotonin
  29. melatonin
    exact function unknown; affects the onset of puberty
  30. serotonin
    a neruotransmitter that serves as the precursor to melatonin
  31. pituitary gland/hypophysis
    located at the base of the brain; considered the master gland as it secretes hormones that regulate the function of other glands
  32. anterior pituitary/ adenohypophysis
    anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
  33. adrenocorticotropic hormone (TSH)
    stimulates secretion from thyroid gland
  34. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    stimulates secretion from adrenal cortex
  35. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    initiates the growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates the secretion of estrogen in females and the production of sperm in males
  36. lutenizing hormone (LH)
    causes ovulation; stimulates the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum; causes the secretion of testosterone in the testes
  37. melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
    affects skin pigmentation
  38. growth hormone (GH)
    influences growth
  39. prolactin/ lactogenic hormone
    stimulates breast development and milk production during pregnancy
  40. posterior pituitary/ neurohypophysis
    posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
  41. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules
  42. oxytocin
    influences uterine contraction
  43. testes
    located on both sides within the scrotum in the male; secrete testosterone
  44. testosterone
    affects masculinization of reproduction
  45. thymus gland
    located in teh mediastinal cavity anterior to and above the heart; secretes thymosin
  46. thymosin
    regulates immune response
  47. thyroid gland
    located in front of the neck; secretes triiodothyronine(T3), thyroxine(T$), and calcitonin
  48. triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4)
    known as the thyroid hormones; regulate metabolism
  49. calcitonin
    regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
  50. exophthalmos or exophthalmus
    protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often b/c of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball
  51. glucosuria/gylcosuria
    glucose(sugar) in the urine
  52. hirsutism
    shaggy; an excessive growht of hair, especially in unusual places
  53. hypercalcemia
    an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood
  54. hypocalcemia
    an abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
  55. hyperglycemia
    high blood sugar
  56. hypoglycemia
    low blood sugar
  57. hyperkalemia
    an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood
  58. hypersecretion
    abnormally increased secretion
  59. hyposecretion
    abnormally decreased secreation
  60. ketosis/ketoacidosis/diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
    presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies in the blood and urine indicating an abnormal use of carbohydrates, such as in uncontrolled diabetes and starvation
  61. metabolism
    all chemical processes in the body that result in growth, generation of energy, elimination of wasted, and other body functions
  62. polydipsia
    excessive thirst
  63. polyuria
    excessive urination
  64. crushing syndrome
    a collection of signs and symptoms caused by an excessive level of cortisol hormone; symptoms include upper body obesity, facial puffiness, hyperglycemia, weakness, thin and easily bruised skin with stria, hypertension, and osteoporosis
  65. adrenal virilism
    excessive output of the adrenal secretion of androgen (male sex hormone) in adult women caused by a tumor or hyperplasia, evidenced by amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), acne, hirsutism, and deepening of the voice
  66. diabetes mellitus (DM)
    metabolic disorder caused by the absence or insufficient production of insulin secreted by the pancreas, resulting in hyperglycemia and glucosuria
  67. type 1 diabetes mellitus
    diabetes in which no beta-cell production of insulin occurs and the patient is dependent on insulin for survival
  68. type 2 diabetes mellitus
    diabetes in which either the body produces insufficient insulin or insulin resistance (a defective use of the insulin that is produced) occurs; the patient usually is not dependent on insulin for survival
  69. hyperinsulinism
    a condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions; often caused by and overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas
  70. pancreatitis
    inflammation of the pancreas
  71. hyperparathyroidism
    hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor
  72. hypoparathyroidism
    hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands
  73. acromegaly
    disease characterized by enlarged features, especially of the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary growth hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
  74. pituitary dwarfism
    a condition of congenital hypsecretion of growth hormone that slows growth and causes short, yet proportionate, stature (not affecting intelligence); often treated during childhood with growth hormone; other forms of dwarfism are most often caused by genetic defects
  75. pituitary gigantism
    a condition of hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood bone development that leads to an abnormal overgrowth of bone, especially of the long bones; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
  76. goiter
    enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation
  77. hyperthyroidism
    a condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by nervousness, weight loss, rapid pulse, protrusion of the eyeball, goiter etc
  78. graves disease
    the most common form of hyperthyroidism; caused by an autoimmune defect that creates antibodies that stimulate the overproduction of thyroid hormones; exophthalmos is a featured characteristic
  79. hypothyroidism
    a condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often, obesity
  80. myxedema
    advanced hypothyroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands and face and dry skin
  81. cretinism
    condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical stature; the thyroid gland is either congenitally absent or imperfectly developed
  82. blood sugar (BS)/ blood glucose
    measurement of the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood
  83. fasting blood sugar (FBS)
    measurement of blood sugar level after fasting (not eating) for 12 hours.
  84. postprandial blood sugar (PPBS
    measurement of blood sugar level after a meal (commonly 2 hours later)
  85. glucose tolerance test (GTT)
    measurement of the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a prescribed amount of glucose after a fasting period, then measuring blood and urine for glucose levels every hr thereafter for 4-6 hours.
  86. glycohemoglobin/ glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc)
    a molecule (fraction) in hemoglobin, the level of which rises in the blood as a result of an increased level of blood sugar, a common blood test used in diagnosing and treating diabetes
  87. electrolyte panel
    measurement of the level of specific ionsin the blood; electrolytes are essential for maintaining water balance as well as nerve, muscle, and heart activity
  88. thyroid function study
    measurement of thyroid hormone levels in blood plasma to determine the efficiency of glandular secretions, including T3, T4, and TSH
  89. urine sugar and ketone studies
    chemical tests to determine the presence of sugar or ketone bodies in urine; used as a screen for diabetes
  90. computed tomography (CT)
    CT of the head is used to obtain a transvers (horizontal) view of the pituitary gland
  91. magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)
    nonionizing images of magnetic resonance are useful in identifying abnormalities of the pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, and thyroid glands
  92. sonography
    sonographic images are used to identify endocrine pathology, such as with thyroid ultrasound
  93. thyroid uptake and image
    radionuclide scan of the thyroid to visualize the radioactive accumulation of previously injected isotopes to detect thyroid nodules or tumors
  94. adrenalectomy
    excision of the adrenal glands
  95. hypophysectomy
    excision of the pituitary gland
  96. pancreatectomy
    excision of the pancreas
  97. parathyroidectomy
    excision of the parathyroid glands
  98. thymectomy
    excision of the thymus gland
  99. thyroidectomy
    excision of the thyroid gland
  100. continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSI)/insulin pump therapy
    use of an insulin delivery device that is worn on the body (usually the abdomen) and subcutaneously infuses doses of insulin programmed according to the individual needs of the diabetic patient
  101. radioiodine therapy
    use of radioactive iodine to treat disease, such as to eradicate thyroid tumor cells; treatment is administered in a nuclear medicine facility
  102. antidiabetic drug
    any several agents used to control blood sugar levels in treatment of diabetes mellitus
  103. antithyroid drug
    an agent that blocks the production of thyroid hormones; used to treat hyperthyroidism
  104. hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
    treatment with a hormone to correct a hormonal deficiency
  105. hypoglycemic/ antihyperglycemic
    a drug that lowers the blood glucose level
  106. ACTH
    adrenocorticotropic hormone
  107. ADH
    antidiuretic hormone
  108. BS
    blood sugar
  109. Co2
    carbon dioxide
  110. CSII
    continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion
  111. CT
    computed tomography
  112. DKA
    diabetic ketoacidosis
  113. DM
    diabetes mellitus
  114. FBS
    fasting blood sugar
  115. FSH
    follicle-stimulating hormone
  116. GH
    growth hormone
  117. GTT
    glucose tolerance test
  118. HbAlc
    glycosylated hemoglobin
  119. HRT
    hormone replacement therapy
  120. LH
    luteinizing hormone
  121. MRI
    magnetic resonance imaging
  122. MSH
    melanocyte-stimulating hormone
  123. PPBS
    postprandial blood sugar
  124. PTH
    parathyroid hormone
  125. T3
  126. T4
  127. TSH
    thyroid-stimulating hormone
Card Set
Endocrine System
medterms ch 9