Sociology: Unit 3 (Groups)

  1. What three factors exist in all groups?
    • a) two or more people
    • b) interacting
    • c) meeting a common goal
  2. What is the group continuum?
    scale showing distance between two extremes in groups (primary and secondary)
  3. What is an example fo a primary group?
  4. What is an example of a secondary group?
  5. What are the five factors of of primary groups?
    • frequent and intimate
    • strong identification with group
    • emotional bonds with group
    • relationships are diffuse (people hang out when they don't have to)
    • relationships tend to be permanent
  6. What are five factors of secondary groups?
    • infrequent and impersonal
    • weak identification with group
    • weak or no bonds
    • relationships limited to tasks
    • relationships tend to temporary
  7. What is the differnce between task and maintenance leadership?
    • task: focused on achieving goal
    • maintenance: focused on well being of group
  8. List and define (add when each is appropriate) three task leadership strategies.
    • laissez-faire: laid back approach. appropriate when group members know what they're doing.
    • democratic: seeks input from all members. appropriate with lost of time.
    • authoritarian: dictates direction of group activities. appropriate when there is an expert, or little time
  9. Define conflict.
    Intentially trying to impose physical or emotional harm
  10. Define cooperation.
    When individuals or groups work together to both benefit
  11. Define competition.
    When individuals or groups oppose each other so that one may benefit or win.
  12. Define accomodation.
    similar to cooperation yet each side must give up something in order for both to be happy
  13. Define assimilation.
    when two previously distinct groups come together and form one unified group.
  14. What did the Asch Conformity Experiement measure?
    conformity related to peer pressure (line test)
  15. What did the Milgram Experiement measure?
    obediance to authority (electric shock).
  16. What is a membership group?
    a group to which people actually belong
  17. What is a reference group?
    group you use in order to make some sense of the world.
  18. Reference groups help to... (2)
    • decide which norms to follow
    • make judgements about oneself
  19. Are primary and secondary groups membership or reference groups or both?
    membership groups
  20. What are three factors of an in group?
    • strong identification with group
    • sense of loyalty
    • personal commitment
  21. What is an example of an in group?
    Red Sox
  22. What are three factors of an out group?
    • no identification
    • sense of opposition
    • competition and conflict
  23. Are in and out groups membership or reference groups or both?
    Can be both
  24. How do groups distinguish between members and non members, (social boundaries)? (2)
    • symbolic
    • physical
  25. What are five examples of symbollic ways for a group to distinguish between members and non members?
    • clothing
    • hand gestures
    • body art
    • language
    • music
  26. What are four examples of physical ways for a group to distinguish between members and non members?
    • playing field
    • home
    • school
    • workplace
  27. What did Stoner's Risky Shift say?
    individuals make riskier decisions when in the context of a group?
  28. What were the three reasons for Stoner's Risky Shift?
    • 1) shared responsibility/consequences
    • 2) society values risk (people don't want to be seen as wimps)
    • 3) Leaders are risk-takers (leader can influence the entire group
  29. T or F? A significant other can be a powerful stimulus for behavioral change.
  30. T or F? An individual can be an active member of a group he/ she considers to be an out group.
  31. List the four functions of group conflict.
    • increases communication
    • signals underlying dissatsifaction
    • prevents accumulation of dissastifaction
    • acts as a safety valve
Card Set
Sociology: Unit 3 (Groups)