What organism is the major cause of UTIs?
Escherichia coli accounts for 90% of the 7 million cases. most potent of all the pathogens that cause UTIs
What is a bacterial diagnosis of a UTI based on?
- Requires collection of a clean voided stream
How do bacteria routinely enter the bladder?
- from external environment
- from blood passing throgught the renal artery
- normally flushed out during urination
- They are more common in males the first few months of life but by preschool its more prevalent in women.
What are some virulence factors associated with UTIs?
- alpha hemolysins
- specialized pili- P pili
- - binds to receptor cells of urinary tract
- causes successful colonization
- In 90% of patients UTIs are identified as pyuria
- - more than 10 WBCs per cubic millimeter of urine
- - presence of WBC casts in the urine
What is the most definite way to confirm a UTI?
- A gram stain of urine sample
- 1 bacterium per oil-immersion field indicates infection
UTI occuring in urethra
UTI occurs in bladder
UTI occurs in kidneys
UTi of the prostate
What are mos bacterial infections of the reproductive system?
- most often affect women
- more sexual promiscuity= more likely to contract an STD
What can STDs cause?
- pharyngitits (10-15 year olds most common location for STD)
- Pelvic inflamatory Disease (PID)
What does Neisseria Gonorrhoeae cause?
- Disseminated gonococcal infection
What does Chlamydia trachomatis cause?
- Non-gonococcal urethritis
- Lymphogranuloma Venereum
What does Treponema Pallidum cause/
What does ureaplasma Urealycticum cause?
What does HIV cause?
AIDS, AIDS related complex
Herpes Simplex virus
Primary and recurrent gential herpes
Genital wars and association with cervical carcinoma
Vulvovaginitis and penile candidiassis
What are the four stages of syphillis?
- Causitive agent: Teponema pallidum
- Primary: Presence of chancre, (painless hard lesion)
- Secondary: widspread rash, sore throat, headace, mild fever, malaise, myalgia
- Latent: no clinical sign
- Tertiary: gummas, dementia, blindness, paralysis, heart failure--- you see this stage 20-30 years after initial infection
- gummus= granulosis lesion either bones, organs, skin
- Syphillis has very sensitive growing conditions
What are the symptoms of gonorrhea?
- causative agent: Nisseria Gonorrhorea
- can have very mild of no symptoms
- discharge, dysuria
- disseminated gonococcal infection
- tx: one dose of cephalosporins
Explain the replication of chalmydia
- Has a unique replication cycle that involves two forms of bacterium
- These are the elementary body and the reticular body
- The replication cycle begins when an EB attaches to receptors on the plasma memebrane of the host cell and enters through endocytosis
- While in the endocytotic vesile, the EB converts to an RB.
- Instead of fusing with lysosomes, the vesicles fuse with other vesicles carrying the same pathogen.
- As the number of chlamydia in each vacuole increases, the endosome membrane expands by fusin gwith the lipids of the golgi aparatus to from a large inclusion body.
- AFter 24-72 hours, the process reverses and te RB form reorganizes and condenses to the EB form.
- The endosome membrane then either disintregrates or fuses with the host cell membrane releasing the EBs, which go on to infect new tarets.
What are some signs and symptoms of chlamydia?
- Females: most are asymptomatic → PID
- males: painful urination, pus discharge from penis
- lymphogranuloma venereum- severe form of disease characterized by a transient genitial lesion and a bubo in the groin
bubo= huge swelling of a lymphnode
Describe the EB and RB in regards to chlamydia
- Elementary bodies- inefective form
- Reticulate bodies- reproductive form
What is the most commonly reported std in the US?
Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of chlamydia
- diagnosed by demonstration of chlamydial DNA following PCR amplification
- tx’s w/ antimicrobial drugs
- prevented by abstience or mutual monogamy
Epidemiology of herpes
genital herpes quadruples the risk of HIV infection
Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of herpes
- diagnosis made based on chacteristics lesions
- tx requires administration of acyclovir or other antiviral agents to lessen symptoms
- prevention can be acheived through abstience or mutual monogamy
- condoms often provide little protection
Trichomoniasis is caused by?
caused by trichomonas vaginalis
S/S of trichomoniasis
- women- foul smelling, yellow-green baginal discharge and vaginal irritation
- males- typically asymptomatic
Pathogenisis and Epidemiology
- Transmission primarily via sex
- most common currable STD in women
- individuals w/ multiple sex partners or infected w/ other veneral diseases are at higher risk for the disease
- caused by hemophilus ducreyi
- prodcues a toxin tht kills epethelial cells
Most nosocomial UTIs are caused by?
The most common STD in the US is?
Nephritis may result from:
Which of the following is caused by chlamydia?
D. Non-gonococal urethritis