micro ch 23

  1. What organism is the major cause of UTIs?
    Escherichia coli accounts for 90% of the 7 million cases. most potent of all the pathogens that cause UTIs
  2. What is a bacterial diagnosis of a UTI based on?
    • Urine
    • Requires collection of a clean voided stream
  3. How do bacteria routinely enter the bladder?
    • from external environment
    • from blood passing throgught the renal artery
    • normally flushed out during urination
    • They are more common in males the first few months of life but by preschool its more prevalent in women.
  4. What are some virulence factors associated with UTIs?
    • alpha hemolysins
    • specialized pili- P pili
    • - binds to receptor cells of urinary tract
    • causes successful colonization
    • In 90% of patients UTIs are identified as pyuria
    • - more than 10 WBCs per cubic millimeter of urine
    • - presence of WBC casts in the urine
  5. What is the most definite way to confirm a UTI?
    • A gram stain of urine sample
    • 1 bacterium per oil-immersion field indicates infection
  6. Urethritis
    UTI occuring in urethra
  7. Cystitis
    UTI occurs in bladder
  8. Nephritis
    UTI occurs in kidneys
  9. Prostatitis
    UTi of the prostate
  10. What are mos bacterial infections of the reproductive system?
  11. STDS
    • most often affect women
    • more sexual promiscuity= more likely to contract an STD
  12. What can STDs cause?
    • Urethritis
    • cervicitis
    • prostatis
    • pharyngitits (10-15 year olds most common location for STD)
    • Pelvic inflamatory Disease (PID)
  13. What does Neisseria Gonorrhoeae cause?
    • Urethritis
    • Cervicitis
    • Prostatis
    • Pharyngitis
    • PIV
    • Disseminated gonococcal infection
  14. What does Chlamydia trachomatis cause?
    • Non-gonococcal urethritis
    • Epididymitis
    • Cervicitis
    • Aalpingitis
    • Lymphogranuloma Venereum
  15. What does Treponema Pallidum cause/
  16. What does ureaplasma Urealycticum cause?
    Non-Gonococcal urethritis
  17. What does HIV cause?
    AIDS, AIDS related complex
  18. Herpes Simplex virus
    Primary and recurrent gential herpes
  19. Papilloma virus
    Genital wars and association with cervical carcinoma
  20. Candida albicans
    Vulvovaginitis and penile candidiassis
  21. Trichonomonas vaiginalis
    Trichomonoal vaginitis
  22. What are the four stages of syphillis?
    • Causitive agent: Teponema pallidum
    • Primary: Presence of chancre, (painless hard lesion)
    • Secondary: widspread rash, sore throat, headace, mild fever, malaise, myalgia
    • Latent: no clinical sign
    • Tertiary: gummas, dementia, blindness, paralysis, heart failure--- you see this stage 20-30 years after initial infection

    • gummus= granulosis lesion either bones, organs, skin
    • Syphillis has very sensitive growing conditions
  23. What are the symptoms of gonorrhea?
    • causative agent: Nisseria Gonorrhorea
    • can have very mild of no symptoms
    • discharge, dysuria
    • PID
    • disseminated gonococcal infection
    • tx: one dose of cephalosporins
  24. Explain the replication of chalmydia
    • Has a unique replication cycle that involves two forms of bacterium
    • These are the elementary body and the reticular body
    • The replication cycle begins when an EB attaches to receptors on the plasma memebrane of the host cell and enters through endocytosis
    • While in the endocytotic vesile, the EB converts to an RB.
    • Instead of fusing with lysosomes, the vesicles fuse with other vesicles carrying the same pathogen.
    • As the number of chlamydia in each vacuole increases, the endosome membrane expands by fusin gwith the lipids of the golgi aparatus to from a large inclusion body.
    • AFter 24-72 hours, the process reverses and te RB form reorganizes and condenses to the EB form.
    • The endosome membrane then either disintregrates or fuses with the host cell membrane releasing the EBs, which go on to infect new tarets.
  25. What are some signs and symptoms of chlamydia?
    • Females: most are asymptomatic → PID
    • males: painful urination, pus discharge from penis
    • lymphogranuloma venereum- severe form of disease characterized by a transient genitial lesion and a bubo in the groin

    bubo= huge swelling of a lymphnode
  26. Describe the EB and RB in regards to chlamydia
    • Elementary bodies- inefective form
    • Reticulate bodies- reproductive form
  27. What is the most commonly reported std in the US?
  28. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of chlamydia
    • diagnosed by demonstration of chlamydial DNA following PCR amplification
    • tx’s w/ antimicrobial drugs
    • prevented by abstience or mutual monogamy
  29. Epidemiology of herpes
    genital herpes quadruples the risk of HIV infection
  30. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of herpes
    • diagnosis made based on chacteristics lesions
    • tx requires administration of acyclovir or other antiviral agents to lessen symptoms
    • prevention can be acheived through abstience or mutual monogamy
    • condoms often provide little protection
  31. Trichomoniasis is caused by?
    caused by trichomonas vaginalis
  32. S/S of trichomoniasis
    • women- foul smelling, yellow-green baginal discharge and vaginal irritation
    • males- typically asymptomatic
  33. Pathogenisis and Epidemiology
    • Transmission primarily via sex
    • most common currable STD in women
    • individuals w/ multiple sex partners or infected w/ other veneral diseases are at higher risk for the disease
  34. Chanchroid
    • caused by hemophilus ducreyi
    • prodcues a toxin tht kills epethelial cells
  35. Most nosocomial UTIs are caused by?
    E. Coli
  36. The most common STD in the US is?
    Non-gonococccal Urethritis
  37. Nephritis may result from:

    D. All
  38. Which of the following is caused by chlamydia?

    D. Non-gonococal urethritis
Card Set
micro ch 23