What is Progressive resistance exercise?
An exercise in which the workload is increased in predetermined steps.
Based on the RM (repetition maximum).
The RM is the maximum load a muscle group can lift for a given number of repetitions, so that a 10-RM is the maximum load that can be lifted 10 times.
What is a Circuit System?
Were a series of exercises is performed in a sequence, or circuit, with 1 exercise at each station.
Moving from 1 exercise to the next, performing 1 set of each exercise, untill the circuit is completed.
The entire circuit may be repeated - usually completed 1,2 or 3 times during a training session.
What is a pyramid system?
where the weight used for each set of an exercise is increased, and the number of repetitions is decreased correspondingly.
This allows you to proceed from a light weight to heavy weight.
Often used when training for strength.
Some use pyramid up only ... some pyramid up to a heavy weight, then back down.
What are Negatives?
Negatives occur when you lower a heavier weight than you can lift.
To perform negatives, spotters help you lift a weight and then you lower the weight yourself.
This advanced training method can result in extreme muscle soreness and IS NOT RECOMMENDED for beginning weight trainers.
What is one 1RM?
Maximum voluntary contraction = one repetition maximum (1 rm)
What is concentric failure?
To reach concentric failure
You must perform repetitions until you cannot perfom another repetition while maintaining strict exercise form.
What is simple progressive system?
It involves changing 2 variables , such as resistance.
An example is performing 1 set of 10 reps of an exercise. If 10 reps are completed, the resistance is increased for the next training session.
What is Elasticity?
The ability of muscle tissue to return to its normal resting length and shape after being stretched.
If muscle tissue did not have elasticity, it would remain at its stretched length.
What is concentration?
Focus your full attention on the muscles that are moving the weight.
To gain the maximum benefit from each exercise, maintain this concentration on every repetition and througout every set
What is Extensibility?
The ability of muscle tissue to be stretched.
If muscle tissue could not stretch, you would not have the mobility or range of motion you have.
What is overload?
The over is the basis of all training programs.
In weight training, the muscle to be developed must be overloaded, or forced to work harder than normal.
The overload must be enough to stimulate improvement but not enough to cause injury.
What is Specificity?
1. You must exercise the specific muscles you want to develope.
2. You must follow specific exercise guidelines to produce the specific type of change you desire: muscle strength, muscle size, or muscle endurance.
What is Skeletal Muscle Tissue?
Skeletal muscle is attached to the bones of the skeletal system.
Skeletal muscle is voluntary muscle-the contraction of skeletal muscle is a result of conscious voluntary control.
What is Eccentric contraction?
(or Eccentric muscle action)
a lengthening contraction. The muscle contracts and tries to shorten but is overcome by the resistance.
Eccentric contractions allow you to lower things smoothly and slowly.
An example is lowering the weight in a smooth, controlled manner during barbell curl.
What are things that are important for weight training progress?
- Change only one variable at a time (resistance, repetitions, sets, rest).
- Increase reps or sets before increasing resistance.
- Decrease reps when increasing resistance.
- Decrease the rest interval between sets to increase muscular endurance.
What is the difference between Static, dynamic, ballistic and PNF stretching?
Static stretch: is a method of stretching in which the bones of a joint are moved to the point where the soft tissues surrounding the joint restrict further movement. These soft tissues (muscle, tendon, ligament, and joint capsule) are gently stretched and held in this stretched position for a period of time.
Dynamic stretch: is moving in and out of a position.
Ballistic stretching is a form of passive stretching. Ballistic stretches force the limb into an extended range of motion when the muscle has not relaxed enough to enter it
PNF - Propioreceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) - pretty much uses another person or a towel to stretch.
Which Stretching is recommended the most and what are the 6 reasons?
Static stretch is recommended
1 - It is an effective way to increase flexibility
2 - The risk of injury is low
3 - It is easy to learn
4 - You can stretch alone
5 - Static stretch relieves some types of muscle soreness
6 - If done correctly, does not cause muscle soreness
At what intensity should you stretch?
The tissue surround a joint should be stretched to about 10% beyond its normal length.
However, when you are stretching at the correct intensity, you will experience moderate discomfort or moderate tension in the tissues being stretched.
What are the 7 guidelines for spotting?
1 - Be sure you are strong enough to help with the weight being attempted.
2 - Know how the lifter expects to be spotted.
3 - Know what signs or signals the lifter will use to communicate during the lift.
4 - Stay alert! Give your full attention to spotting the lift. Do not look away from the lifter. Do not be distracted. Do not carry a conversation with the lifter.
5 - Do not touch the bar during the exercise if the lifter can complete the lift without your help.
6 - Before the lift, check the bar for balanced loading and secure collars.
7 - Move weight plates or anything else near your feet that might cause you to trip or lose your balance.
What are 5 advantages of free weights compared to weight machines?
1 - Cost
2 - Variety
3 - Accessory Muscles
4 - Mobility
5 - Fit
When starting a weight program the book suggest how many exercises per joint action?
One exercise per body part is enough for the beginning weight trainer.
When starting a weight program the book suggest how many sets and reps per exercise?
Start with a low number of sets and gradually increase the number of sets as your body adapts to each new workload.
What foods have calories
What are 8 principles recommended for health fat loss?
1 - Eat a balanced diet of good-quality food.
2 - Do not skip meals, and eat smaller meals.
3 - Do not omit any food groups but reduce portion sizes.
4 - Decrease your total caloric intake by about 500 to 1,000 calories per day. This should translate into a safe 1 to 2 pounds of fat loss per week.
5 - Increase your level of physical activity. Develop and follow a planned exercise program.
6 - Select daily activities where food is not easily available.
7 - Keep moving. Stay active. Your metabolic rate and caloric expenditure are higher when you are awake and moving than when you are sleeping and resting.
8 - Eat more slowly. Your brain needs about 20 minutes to register that you are full.
What are 7 recommended ways to gain muscle weight?
1 - Perform brief weight training workouts.
2 - Work the largest muscles in your body.
3 - Eat a balanced diet of high-quality foods.
4 - Increase your total caloric intake by 500 to 1000 calories per day.
5 - Eat smaller meals and more frequently.
6 - Get plenty of rest. Slow down, stay calm, and decrease your other activities.
7 - Set a healthy goal to gain muscle and not just total body weight. Watch your body-fat level. Any diet in which caloric intake exceeds caloric need can lead to fat storage and unhealthy weight gain.
Why keep written records of your weight training workouts?
Because the information you record during your training sessions can be a valuable source of information about your personal response to a variety of weight training exercise.
You will be able to look back through your records and compare your progress using various training methods and exercises.
This will help you find which exercises and training methods work best for you.
It also helps to provide motivation and ensure the correct exercise stimulus.
What are 6 things you can measure to see if you are benefiting from your weight training?
1 - Strength
2 - Muscular Endurance
3 - Size: Neck, chest (relaxed & flexed), waist (relaxed & flexed), Waist, Hips (relaxed & flexed), thigh (relaxed & flexed), Calf or leg (relaxed & flexed), Upper arm (relaxed & flexed), forearm (relaxed & flexed)
4 - Body weight
5 - Body fat
6 - Photographs
For success in a weight lifting program what should come first?
Develop written goals
Know how to write well-witten weight-training goals
Develop written Goals – (short term, achievable, exact, measurable)
Use positive Thinking – (Believe/havefaith in your goals)
Use your subconscious – (Read goals 2ce a day, morning/night, before training)
Develop a written plan – (take time to plan, evaluate/modify plan)
Do it – (start and don’t stop until you reach it. Enjoy journey)
To develop strength you should work out with what % of your 1 RM?
What are the recommended reps for general muscle fitness and muscle tone?
8 - 12 reps
What are the 6 statges of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change? (in order)
1 - Precontemplation
2 - Contemplation
3 - Preparation
4 - Action
5 - Maintenance
6 - Adoption
What is Precontemplation?
in this first stage, you are not interested in changing. You may not know you need to change, or you may deny a need for change. If you are in this stage, you might say, “I don’t need or want a weight training program.”
What is contemplation?
in this second stage, you have begun to recognize a need for change, and you are beginning to consider a change. Perhaps you have noticed a loss of strength, vitality, or undesirable changes in your appearance, and you have started thinking about an exercise program to build your strength, regain your vitality, or improve your appearance. If you are in this stage, you could say, “I might start a weight training program.”
What is Preparation?
in the third stage, you are seriously planning to change a behavior within the next month. You might sign up for a weight training class, read a weight training book, join a fitness center, or start looking for a personal trainer. If you are in this stage, you might say, “I will start a weight training program this month.”
What is Action?
in this fourth stage, you have made a commitment and have taken action. If you are in this stage, you might say, “I do have a planned weight training program, and I lift weights at a regular time and place.”
What is Maintenance?
in the fifth stage, you have maintained your behavior change for a long time. If you are in this stage, you might say, “I have been weight training on a regular basis for the last five years.”
What is Adoption?
in the sixth stage, you have adopted a positive behavior and it has become part of your lifestyle. If you are in this stage, you might say, “I am a weight trainer.” The behavior has become a regular part of your current lifestyle and your identity.
What are some things that keep you sticking with your weight-training program? (21 things)
1 - Motivation
2 - Enjoyment
3 - Importance
4 - Priority
5 - Time
6 - Record
7 - Reward
8 - Knowledge
9 - Social Interaction
10 - Support
11 - Identity
12 - Place
13 - Convenience
14 - Instruction
15 - Variety
16 - Fitness
17 - Success
18 - Appearance
19 - Image
20 - Regularity
21 - Habit
What are the Primary movers for Seated Rowing?
- Latissimus Doris (Lats),
What are the Primary movers for Shoulder Shrugs?
What are the primary movers for Lateral raise?
What are the Primary movers for Arm curls?
What are the primary movers for bar dips?
Sternal (Chest - lower pecs)
What are the primary movers for Reverse wrist curls?
What are are the primary movers for Leg curls?
BASICALY ALL MUSCLES IN HAMSTRINGS
What are the primary movers in Standing Calf raise?
What are the primary movers in Back extension?
Erector Spinae (Lower back)