1. What is the general structure of a muscle?
  2. Define these terms: fascicle, muscle fibre, myofibrils, sarcolemma, sarcoplasm, traverse tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum
  3. What are the 3 types of connective tissue sheaths and what do they surround?
  4. What are the 2 types of protein fibres contained in myofibrils?
  5. What is a sarcomere? Draw a really pretty diagram with lots of happy colours. Be creative! Muscles don’t always have to be a boring blood red colour. Try purple of yellow or ALL the colours of the rainbow! Don’t forget to label the diagram! ... Or you’re FUCKED.
  6. Define these terms and discuss their characteristics: A band, I band, H zone, happy-no-study zone.
  7. What are the 2 types of contractile proteins?
  8. What is actin made up of?
  9. What is tropomyopsin?
  10. What is troponin?
  11. What is the structure of myosin?
  12. What are the 2 binding sites found in myosin?
  13. What is a nebulin?
  14. What is a titin?
  15. What happens when a sarcoglycan complex is damaged?
  16. What characterises muscle dystrophies?
  17. What is the function of dystrophin?
  18. What happens in the absence of dystrophin?
  19. What are the most important muscle proteins involved in dystrophies?
  20. Define these terms: desmin, plectin, and ab-crystrallin- mutations of these cause?
  21. State the 4 main steps in the sliding filament theory?
  22. What happens when muscle fibres are relaxed?
  23. What happens when muscle fibres are contracting?
  24. What happens when muscle fibres are fully tabouli contracted?
  25. How are myosin binding sites uncovered in thin filaments?
  26. State the steps that a myosin molecule takes.
  27. What happens when an action potential is triggered in a muscle fibre?
  28. What happens in electrochemical coupling?
  29. What is a twitchity twitch?
  30. What is a tetanusy tetanus?
  31. What are the stages of a twitch?
  32. Why is a twitch 4 times smaller than a tetanus?
  33. What happens during a summation of twitches?
  34. How does low stimulation affect the force generated by muscle fibres?
  35. How does high stimulation affect the force generated by muscle fibres?
  36. How are twitch summations related to a tetanus?
  37. How does fibre diameter affect the force generated by muscle fibres?
  38. How does changes in fibre length relate to the force generated by muscle fibres
  39. How does the body resist the fatigue of muscles?
  40. What are the predominant type of fibres in elite athletes/marathon runners?
  41. Draw the structure of a smooth muscle cell and label the diagram.
  42. What is the purpose of caveolae?
  43. What is the function of lipid rafts?
  44. State the steps in a smooth muscle contraction.
  45. What are the similarities and differences between cardiac and skeletal muscle?
  46. How do T tubules of cardiac muscle compare to skeletal muscle?
  47. The SR of cardiac muscle is more extensive than that of skeletal muscle. T/F
  48. Mitochondria is more abundant in cardiac muscle than skeletal muscle. T/F
  49. What are intercalated discs in cardiac muscle?
  50. What do the traverse components of the cardiac muscle consist of?
  51. Define myogenic.
  52. define exocytation.
  53. What are Purkinje fibres?
  54. What is myocardial infarcation?
  55. What happens to cardiocytes when there is a loss of blood supply for greater than 20 mins?
  56. What happens when blood is restored in cardiocytes within 20mins?
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