ENG 405 Exam 2

  1. tautologies
    always true, no matter the context
  2. contradictions
    always false
  3. paradoxes
    impossible to assign a truth value
  4. Truth conditions
    • if you know a sentence's meaning, then you know the conditions under which it would be true.
    • If conditions hold- the sentence is synthetically true
    • Declarative utterances have straightfoward truth conditions. Interrogative and imperative utteraces don't have truth values in the same sense
  5. Entailments
    things entailed by the sentence- straightforward inferences. If two sentences entail each other, they are synonymous, or paraphrases of each other.
  6. Presuppositions
    inferences that are assumed to be true, rather than directly asserted
  7. Co-operative principle-philosopher Paul Grice -
    • Relevance- be relevant to the conversation at hand
    • Quality - do not lie, do not make unsupported claims
    • Quantity - say neither more nor less than the discourse requires
    • Clarity/Manner- be brief and orderly, avoid ambiguity and obscurity
  8. Implicatures
    triggered when a speaker flouts one or more of these maxims
  9. performative speech act
    Action completed solely by speaking- I promise, I apologize, I admit, I command
  10. phonetics
    • deals with the production of speech sounds by humans
    • acoustic=physical properties of sounds auditory=perception of sounds articulatory=how vocal tract produces sounds
  11. phonology
    the grammar of phonetic patterns
  12. Vocal placement
  13. high front – i beet, I bit
    • high back - ʊ boot
    • mid front – e bait, ɛ bet
    • mid central - ə Rosa, ʌ butt
    • mid back – o boat ʊ put
    • low front –æ bat
    • low back - ɔ bore a bomb
  14. phonemes
    • an abstract concept; a meaningful and distinct phone observable to a native speaker
    • -produces minimal pairs
  15. phones
    the sounds of languages
  16. phoneme inventory
    inventory of meaningful and distinct sounds in a language
  17. phonotactics
    rules for how sounds can be combined -syllable structure- onset=initial cluster, followed by rhyme=nucleus(v) and coda(c)
  18. phonological rules
    rules of pronunciation, eg distinction between [e] and [ej]- rule is insert a front glid after a front tense vowel (bait, lake)
  19. What causes accents?
    It's difficult for speakers to turn off their subconcious first language phoneme inventory - aspiration, dipthongization
Card Set
ENG 405 Exam 2
phonetics, phonology, linguistics