1. Commercial sports growth
    • Market economy
    • Large densely populated cities
    • A standard of living that provides people with time money media and transportation
    • Large amounts of capital
    • Culture emphasizing consumption and material status symbols.
  2. Corporate sponsors and Branding
    • Economic motives and the globalization of commercial sports
    • Sport org's look for global markets.
    • -FIFA NFL NBA seek global exposure and expansion
    • Corp's use sports as vehicles for global expansion
    • To make $
    • Establish ideological outposts in minds of people around the world by sponsoring enjoyment and pleasure.
  3. Stadiums and subsidies-
    Arguments For
    • A stadium and team create jobs
    • Stadium construction infuses money into the local economy
    • Team attracts other businesses
    • Team attracts media attention to boost tourism and economic development
    • Team creates positive psychic and social benefits-social unity, civic pride, and sense of personal well-being.
  4. Stadium Subsidies-Arguments against
    • Stadium jobs are seasonal and offer low pay except to athletes and executives
    • Construction materials often are bough outside the local area
    • New businesses often are franchises located in other cities
    • Discretionary money is limited
    • Feeling good with macho orientations does not benefit everyone.
  5. Team vs. Individual Sport $
    Team Sports-

    • The large majority of pro athletes make limited income
    • The super contracts and mega salaries of a few athletes have distored popular ideas about athlete income.
    • Income among top athletes has risen recently because
    • 1. Legal status and rights have improved
    • 2. League revenues have increased

    • Individual Sports
    • Many athletes do not make enough to pay expenses.
    • There are increasing disparities between top money winners and other athletes
    • Top male heavyweight boxers make most
  6. Amateur athletes vs. Professional athletes
    • Amateur
    • Rights depend on the governing bodies that control various sports
    • Income depends on rules, and endorsements (which vary with celebrity status and corp interest)
    • Most intercollegiate athletes in the US are controlled by the NCAA-these athletes have few rights
    • aren't directly controlled by a boss or manager
    • Professional
    • -Forms of reserve system have been used to restrict the freedom of athletes to play where they wish
    • -Players' associations and unions have challenged this system and struggled for free agency
    • -free agency has been achieved to varying degrees in major team sports
    • -Labor rights for athletes in minor sports are limited
  7. Organizations and control of sport
    • organizations who control amateur sports have an interst in making money and gaining power.
    • with commercialization,
    • Control shifts away from athletes and decisions are less likely to reflect their interests.
    • Control shifts toward owners, corporate sponsors advertisers media personnel marketing and publicity staff, professional management staff accountants and agents
    • -Athletes tend to defer to decisions of these people, because their financial interests are at stake
Card Set
Chapters 11 and 12