1. Acellular slime mold:
    • Class: Myxomycetes
    • - true slime mold
    • - grow into a plasmodium, a giant cell containing many nuclei
    • (Plasmodial slime mold)
  2. Algae:
    - Any of various green, red or brown organisms that grow mostly in water, ranging in size from single cells to large spreading seaweeds

    - Manufacture their own food through photosynthesis and release large amounts of O2 into the atmosphere

    - Form a major part of marine plankton

    - Considered to be protists
  3. Amoebas:
    - One celled aquatic or parasitic protozoans of the genus Amoeba

    - having no definate form and consisting of a mass of protoplasm containing one or more nuclei surrounded by a flexable outer membrane

    - move by means of pseudopods (crawling)
  4. ATP:
    - serve as a source of energy for physiological reactions, expecially muscle contraction
  5. Cellular slime mold:
    - differ from true slime molds in being cellulare and nucleate throughout life.
  6. Chlorophyll:
    - Any of several green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms, such as plants, algae and cyanobacteria

    - Absorb red and blue wavelengths of light but reflect green

    - When it absorbs light energy, it enters a higher energy state which it easily gives up an electron to first available electron-accepting molecule nearby

    - ultamately used in synthesis of ATP, which provide energy for plant metabolism

    * captures photons of light and transfers energy to mitochondria that, inturn, produce ATP
  7. Chloroplasts:
    - Conduct photosynthesis

    - store starch and are involved in amino acid synthesis

    - have own DNA different from DNA in nucleus

    - Create glucose through photosynthesis
  8. Ciliates:
    - Any protozoan of the phylum ciliophora
  9. Cyst:
    - An abnormal membranous sac in the body, containing a gaseous, liquid, or semisolid substance.
  10. Diatoms:
    - algae that produce a silicon structural matrix that settles to the ocean floor when organisms die.

    - Any of various microscopic protist of the phylum Bacillariophyta that live in both fresh and marine water, have hard bivalve shells composed mostly of silica, and often live in colonies.
  11. Flagellates:
    - Any of various protozoans of the subphylum Mastigophora that move by means of one or more flagella
  12. Fungi:
    are all non-motile
  13. Photosynthesis:
    - The synthesis of complex organic materials, especially carbohydrates, from CO2, H2O, and inorganic salts, using sunlight as the source of energy and with the aid of chlorophyll and associated pigments.
  14. Phytoplankton: (phyto; plant) (plankton; drifting)
    - produce more O2 than all of the Earths forests and form the basis for the marine food chain.

    - form the beginning of the food chain for aquatic animals and fix large amounts of carbon, which would otherwise be released as CO2.
  15. Plasmodium:
    - A mass of protoplasm having many cell nuclei but not divided into separate cells

    - formed by amoeba-like cells and characteristic of active, feeding phase of certain slime molds

    -Any of various single-celled organisms (protozoans) that exist as parasites in vertebrate animals, one of which causes malaria.
  16. Protists:
    - Are eukaryotes and live in water or watery tissues of organisms

    -Some protists resemble plants and produce food by photosynthesis, while others resemble animals in consuming organic matter for food

    - Include: protozoans, most algae, diatoms, oomycetes and slime molds
  17. Protozoans:
    - Unicellular protists that lack photosynthetic ability

    - Any of a large group of one-celled organisms (protists) that live in water or as parasites

    - Include: amoebas, flagellates, foraminiferans, and ciliates
  18. Slime mold: (classified as Protists)
    - Any of various organisms that exist as slimy masses and are commonly found on decaying plant matter (not a fungi)

    1. Cellular slime mold: live as single, amoeba-like cells moving about feeding on bacteria. (Grows as a group of individual cells)

    2. Plasmodial slime mold (acellular): exist as a mass of amoeba-like protoplasm (plasmodium) that contain many nuclei within a single cell membrane. (collection of cells that live together)
  19. Sporozoite:
    - no appendages
  20. Trophozoite:
    - Asexual form of certain sporozoans, such as the schizant of the plasmodia of malaria and related parasites

    - the vegetative or growing form of Protozoan

    (Cyst=dormant form of Protozoan)
  21. Cyst:
    - Dormant form of Protozoan
  22. Water molds:
    reproductive cells are flagellated

    - these molds grow into masses of white threads on decaying organic material

    - Most important = Phytophthora infestations which caused the Potato blight in Ireland
  23. Name the 3 groups of the kingdom Protista and their characteristics:
    1. Algae: unicellular but can grow in large groups, such as seaweed

    2. Protozoa: unicellular protists that lack photosynthetic ability to use their organelles of motility for both locomotion and food gathering

    • 3. Slime molds: Not a fungi but grow on dead matter and produce spores
    • - some forms have flagella or pseudopodia unlike fungi
  24. Explain the 3 types of protozoal locomotion:
    1. Flagella: beat back and forth by sliding pairs of microtubules against one another (fish tail)

    2. Cilia: shorter than flagella

    3. Pseudopodia: cell membrane extensions that move forward to attach to a surface so that the rest of the cell can be pulled into that position in a crawling motion
  25. What role to algae play in general marine life:
    - Algae along with other organisms in plankton, use the Sun's energy to produce most of the organic material and oxygen available in the ocean
  26. What are algal cells made of:
    - Mostly cellulose, with agar and pectin

    - Members of the diatom subgroup of algae have a silicon cell wall similar to silicon found in glass and rocks
  27. How do algae obtain and use sunlight:
    - Through the chlorophyll in organelles called chloroplasts that absorbs the energy in sunlight.

    - Chlorophyll transfers energy onto mitochondra that convert it into chemical energy ATP.
  28. How are protozoans classified:
    - According to their locomotion apparatus.

    • 1. Flagella
    • 2. Cilia
    • 3.Pseudopodia
    • 4. Sporozoites-no organells of locomotion
  29. How are protozoan groups commonly identified:
    - by locomotion apparatus, general shape and size, number of nuclei, and presence of syst forms
  30. How do cellular and acellular slime molds differ:
    1. Cellular slipe mold: grow in groups of individual cells.

    2. Acellular: grow into a plasmodium, a giant cell containing many nuclei
Card Set
CH: 8 Eukaryotic Cells: Protista