1. Definitioin of violence
    The use of excessive force that causes or has the potential to cause harm or destruction
  2. Definition of deviance
    • Any behavior departing from the social norm
    • Outside the zone of acceptance in regard to means to an end.
  3. Why is violence out of control in sports?
    Behavior is a viable option

    Deviant acts are committed in public

    Lack of sanctions or influence of positive rewards

    Accepted and expected into role
  4. Formal versus informal deviance
    Formal Deviance- violations of official rules and laws that are punished by official sanctions administered by people in positions of authority.

    Informal Deviance- violations of unwritten customs and shared understandings that are punished by unoffical sanctions administered by observers or peers (ie; hat off indoors, spitting on turf...)
  5. Formal versus Informal Norms
    A shared expectation that people use to identify what is acceptable and unacceptable in a social world.

    Formal- offical expectations that take the form of written rules or laws.

    Informal- customs or unwritten shared understandings of how a person is expected to think, appear, and act in a social world.
  6. Norm
    A shared expectation that people use to identify what is acceptable and unacceptable in a social world.
  7. Connection between playing sports and assault and sexual assault rates among athletes

    Hypotheses about male violence against females
    Men think violence bonds them to the sport because it's masculine.

    Doing violence in sports reproduces the belief that men are superior to women.

    Power and performance sports emphasize the difference between men and women when they encourage violence.

    Sports violence reproduces and ideology of male entitlement

    Hypotheses says violence is related to

    -support from fellow athletes for using physical force as interpersoanl strategy

    -perceived cultrual support for domination as a basis for status & identity among men

    -Social bonds created by colective over-conformity to the norms of the sport ethic

    -Support for the belief that women in sports worlds are groupies

    -collective hubris and the notion that outsiders do not deserve respect

    -institutional support for elite athletes regardless of bx

    -Institutional failures to hold athletes accountable for deviance.
  8. Four forms of violence
    Brutal Body Contact

    Boderline violence

    Quasi-criminal violence

    Criminal violence
  9. Violence and Over conformity
    Coaches may expect players to use violence

    Violence often attracts media attention

    players may not like violence even though most accept it as part of the game

    Quasi- and ciminal violence are routinely rejected by athletes and spectators

    Violence may be related to insecurities in high performance sports

    Expressions of violence are related to gender but not limited to men

    Physicality creates drama and excitement, strong emotions, and special bonds among all athletes male and female.
  10. Constructionist Approach to studying Deviance
    Deviance occurs when ideas traits and actions fall outside socially determined bounderies that people use to determine what is acceptable and unacceptable in a social world.

    • Based on four assumptions:
    • 1. Norms are socially constructed as peole interact with each other and determine what's accpetable and what's not.
    • 2. Deivance is socially constructed as people negotiate the boundaries of their accpetance.
    • 3. Power dynamics influence this negotiatioin
    • 4. Most ideas traits and actions fall into a normally accepted range.
  11. Use a constructionist approach to explain deviance in sports
    Most deviance in sports is not due to the moral bankruptcy of athletes, as inferred by an absolutist approach.

    Most deviance in sports involves over conformity to establish norms in sports.

    Sport deviance must be understood in terms of the context of sport cultures and the norms of "the sport ethic".
  12. Sport Ethic
    And interrelated set of norms or standards that are used to guide and evaluate ideas, traits, and actions in the social worlds created around power and performance sports.
  13. The norms of the sport ethic
    An athlete makes sacrifices for the game

    And athlete strives for distinction

    An athlete accepts risks and play through pain

    An athlete accepts no limits in the pursuit of possibilities
  14. Why do athletes engage in deviant overconformity
    playing sports is so exciting and exhilarating that athletes will do almost anything to stay involved.

    Being selected to play high performance sports often requires overconformity to the norms of the sport ethic

    Exceeding normative limits creates drama and excitement and leads to strong social bonds beween athletes.
  15. Athletes most likely to overconform to the sport ethic
    Those with low self esteem and a deep need to be accepted as athletes by their peers in a sport.

    Those who see achievement in sports as their only way to gain success and respect

    Those males who link their identities as athletes and as men so that being an athlete and being a man become one and the same thing
Card Set
updated noon 4/20