What was the name of the era that preceeded WWI? Explain.
- La Belle Epoch (The Beautiful Era)
- Population increased, standards of living were higher, and there was peace.
Countries had standing armies and compulsory service (mandatory service for 3-5 yrs). They stockpiled weapons as new ones were develope. The army had a bunch of new toys and was bored.
What company was in charge of Britain's weapons development?
Who controled the military in Germany?
The high classes (Junkers and Industrialists)
Name the countries and dates of the Triple Entente.
Name the contries and dates of the Triple Alliance.
- Italy-1882 (they switched in 1915)
Why had Bismarck made friends with Russia? How did Wilhelm II destroy this?
He did not want to be enemies with France and Russia (both sides). Wilhelm forgot to renew the treaty with Russia.
Explain how Russia allied with Great Britain?
Japan and Russia were at war, but Great Britain liked Japan. Until Japan won the war, GB and Russia could not be friends.
What is imperialism?
When countries get colonies for resources and markets.
What event started WWI. Explain it?
- The assasination at Sarajevo
- Serbia was mad that Austria had the province Bosnia (where Sarajevo was) because they could not get to the see. Serbia had a secret terrorist organization (Black Hand) who's ruler is Apis. In 1914, archduke Ferdinand and his wife went there and Gavrilo Princip killed Ferdinand. Franz and the leader of the military both saw no need to have guards even after a first assasin almost killed Franz Ferdinand with a bomb. Franz was going to go back a different way, but the chauffers didn't know so they went the right way, turned around to go the "wrong" way when Princip shot Ferdinand and his wife outside of Schiller's Provision Stores. Nobody knew what had happened until Ferdinand was bleeding from the mouth and fell over. Ferdinand then told his wife to stay alive for their children.
Who was the emperor of Austria when Franz Ferdinand was assasinated?
What was the deal with Franz Ferdinand and his gf?
She wasn't noble enough so they could never be seen together and she couldn't be an empress. They went to Sarajevo to be together.
Why did the Black Hand want to kill Ferdinand?
They thought that when he was emperor he would makie a triple monarchy with Austria, Hungary, and the Slavic nations which would keep Bosnia.
Why did Austria-Hungary unite with Germany? What were the terms of the agreement? Did Germany obey them?
- Russia was a supporter of Pan-Slavism and they didn't want the Slavs united.
- Austria-Hungary would help Germany if they were attacked by the Russians and vice-versa.
- Yes, Germany protected Austria throughout its dealings with Russia. Italy, however, was not as loyal as Germany.
With whom was Russia allied?
Describe the alliances.
- Serbia-Basically, Russia had Serbia's back
- France-France helps when Germany or Austria through Germany attacks Russia
- Great Britain-Cordial alliance meaning that they wouldn't fight for or against eachother. Russia, however, didn't trust Britain because GB wanted the weak Turks to control the Balkan States rather than the strong Russians.
Other than Russia, with whom Russia allied?
- Great Britain (strong alliance)
- (hatred toward Germany)
Britain was weary of ______ taking over its trade and colonization in the Mediterranean. They also tried hard to keep _______ independent because they were crucial to British trade.
Explain the Schlieffen Plan.
Germany would run to the western front and defeat France. Then they would rush back to Russia (see photo)
What events blocked the Schlieffen plan?
The Belgian king did not want Germany to come through their country so he put his army out which gave France time to call the British military in and bring all of their troops to the spot where Germany would attack. They literally drove troops there in taxis. France won at the First Battle of the Marne (Miracle of the Marne). In the meantime, Russians invaded Germany. (side note: after the 1st Battle of the Marne, they began to have trenches)
The Russians lost alot on the eastern front. What did the Czar do?
He went to fight himself.
What battle killed Germany's navy and injured Britain's?
Battle of Juttland. The Germans had to use their U-Boats afterward (used for economic warfare like sieges)
How did Austria do in the war?
Not well, they always needed Germany's help.
Why did the USA join the war? When did they join?
- The Germans were using unrestricted submarine warfare.
- The Zimmerman telegram was sent by Mr. Zimmerman (foreign minister of Germany). It told the Mexicans that if they fought against the US, they'd help. They did this because they did not want the US fighting in Europe. Fortunately, some British dudes had cracked the Zimmerman telegram's code (It went from Germany to Washington to Mexico), so they decoded the message and then said that it had been stolen in Mexico (because they didn't want Germany to know that the code had been broken).
- 1917 (Right when Russia left)
What famous document did Woodrow Wilson have to attain peace? Name some important things it said.
- The Fourteen Points
- They helped to shape the treaty of Versailles (sorta) by saying:
- Serbia would get access to the sea
- Nations would get to become states
- Colonization would slow down and the colonies would pick who they wanted to rule them
- There would not be excess weapons
- There would be no more secret alliances
- The seas would be free
- They would form a league of nations
Why did Germany think they won the war?
They never admitted to defeat and there were no foreign troops in their country.
What important things did the Treaty of Versailles say?
- Germany must not build fortifications near France
- France gained temporary control of German coal mines
- In 15 years the people of the Saar valley would choose to be part of France or Germany
- Alsace-Lorraine went to the French
- New nations were formed (IDR which ones)
- Germany lost all of their colonies
- Germany had a small army without an airforce
- Germany was entirely responsible for the war.
What main things lead up to WWI?
- Triple Alliance/Entente
- Sarajevo assasination
What was the purpose of the Gallipoli campaign?
The Brits would take the Darnadelles sea strait, defeat the Turks at Constantinople, and establish supply lines to Russia.
Why did the Czar's government collapse?
There were supply shortages and people were dying. Lenin took power and got out of the war with the treaty of Brest-Listovik.
What was the significance of the Second Battle of the Marne?
The Allies began to win because the US was helping them march east.