Thyroid Flashcards

  1. What are the primary physiological effects of thyroid hormone?
    Stimulate cell metabolism and activity
  2. What is thryoid hormone derived from? Thyroid hormone is produced by the thyroid gland in response to what?
    • Amino Acid Tyrosine
    • Stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by the anterior pituitary
  3. This is a highly vascular, ductless alveolar (acinar) gland located in the anterior neck in front of the trachea.
    Thyroid Gland
  4. What connects the right and left lobes of the thyroid gland?
    The Isthmus
  5. What is the main function of the thyroid gland?
    Synthesis and storage of thyroid hormone
  6. What is the secretory or functional unit of the thyroid gland? This consists of a layer of thyroid epithelial cells arranged around a large central cavity filled with colloid.
    Thyroid Follicle
  7. This is a protein, contained in colloid, that plays a central role in the synthesis and storage of thyroid hormone.
    Thyroglobulin (Tg)
  8. Whereas thyroid hormone synthesis occurs on the __________ side of the thyroid epithelial cell, hormone release occurs at the __________ side of the cell.
    • Apical
    • Basolateral
  9. Most parafollicular cells, which surround the thyroid follicles, synthesize and secrete the hormone _________, and therefore are frequently referred to as ___ cells. They also secrete other regulatory factors that modulate follicular cell activity in a __________ fashion
    • Calcitonin
    • C
    • Paracrine
  10. What provides the innervation to the thyroid gland?
    The middle and inferior cervical ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system
  11. Thyroid hormone synthesis and release are under negative feedback regulation by what?
    Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis
  12. What is an important antigenic site involved in thyroid autoimmune disease?
    The TSH receptor
  13. Both growth and function of the thyroid are stimulated by the rise in _______ produced by TSH stimulation. Therefore, continued stimulation of this pathway by binding to the TSH receptor causes hyperthyroidism and thyroid hyperplasia.
Card Set
Thyroid Flashcards
Thyroid Flashcards