Antho 1101 II

  1. The fact of evolution was known prior to Darwin. The theory of evolution, through naturalselection (how evolution occurred), was

    A. Darwin’s major contribution
  2. What are the two other mechanisms of genetic evolution that complement natural selection?
    B. random genetic drift and gene flow
  3. What role do recombination and independent assortment play in evolution?

    B. They act to create genetic variability in a breeding population.
  4. Mutations

    A. are sources of genetic variation.
  5. Evolution can be most simply defined as

    D. the process of achieving a perfect fit to the environment.
  6. In the debate of how speciation occurs, advocates of punctuated equilibrium

    D. suggest that long periods of stasis (stability), during which species change little, areinterrupted by evolutionary leaps.
  7. It is important to understand that racial categories are based upon perceptions of phenotypicfeatures, and not on genotypes, because

    C. this means that racial categories are socially defined, not biologically determined.
  8. What is the term for a gradual shift in gene frequencies between neighboring populations?

    C. cline
  9. What is the term for adaptive biological changes that take place during an individual'slifetime?

    C. phenotypical adaptation
  10. What does Thomson's nose rule state?

    D. Long noses are adaptive in cold environments.
  11. Gene flow between populations works to prevent speciation.
  12. Natural selection operates directly on the genotype of an organism.
  13. Physical features cluster into discrete genetic units. This permits biologists andanthropologists to distinguish among racial groups.
  14. Higher amounts of melanin in the skin inhibit the body's ability to manufacture vitamin D.
  15. One of Mendel's contributions to genetics was that he discovered traits were inherited asdiscrete units.
  16. What is the relevance of primatology to anthropology?

    C. it helps anthropologists make inferences about the early social organization of hominidsand untangle issues of human nature and the origins of culture
  17. 2.Which of the following are most closely related to chimpanzees?

    A. humans
  18. 3.What is the term for a trait that organisms have jointly inherited from a common ancestor?

    B. homology
  19. Which of the following traits is not associated with primates?

    B. reliance on smell as the main sense
  20. Platyrrhines/catarrhines is the same as

    B. New World monkeys/Old World monkeys
  21. Sexual dimorphism refers to

    B. marked differences in male and female anatomy and temperament
  22. What species is believed to be ancestral to the modern orangutan?

    A. Sivapithecus
  23. What is the name of the theological belief that all living things could be placed in aprogressive hierarchy?

    E. Great Chain of Being
  24. Based on scientific theories of evolution, humans are not descended from gorillas orchimps. Rather,

    D. humans and the African apes share a common ancestor.
  25. Sahelanthropus tchadensis, or “Toumai”

    A. may be the oldest possible human ancestor yet found.
  26. Humans and apes belong to the same taxonomic superfamily, Hominoidea.
  27. Like apes and hominids, Old World monkeys have full color vision, which prosimians andmost New World monkeys lack.
  28. The earliest primates were exclusive carnivores
  29. Hominins first appeared in the late Miocene or early Pliocene (5 to 2 m.y.a.).
  30. Evidence suggests that Oreopithecus may have been able to shuffle in an upright posture.
  31. A characteristic trend in hominin evolution has been the increase in brain size, especiallywith the advent of the genus Homo. But this increase had to overcome some obstacles. Inparticular,

    D. larger skulls demand larger birth canals, but the requirements of upright bipedalismimpose limits on the expansion of the human pelvic opening.
  32. Australopithecus had at least six species:

    C. A. anamensis, A. afarensis, A. africanus, A. garhi, A. robustus, and A. boisei
  33. “Lucy” is the nickname of

    B. an A. afarensis, found in the Hadar site.
  34. What is one of the probable explanations of the extinction of the australopithecines?

    E. They were eventually unsuccessful in competing for available resources with earlypopulations of Homo.
  35. Which of the following is a difference between Homo erectus and the australopithecines?

    E. Homo erectus' cranial capacity was much larger.
  36. How were Oldowan tools manufactured?

    A. By chipping flakes off a core.
  37. What model of evolutionary change does the sharp contrast between H. habilis and H.erectus support?

    D. punctuated equilibrium
  38. H. erectus is generally associated with which of the following lithic industries?

    D. Acheulian
  39. The first hominin species to be found outside of Africa is

    A. Homo erectus.
  40. Where have H. erectus fossils never been found?

    A. Brazil
  41. The footprints at the site of Laetoli in northern Tanzania were made by Australopithecusafarensis.
  42. The genus Homo did not appear until after all of the australopithecines had died off.
  43. The recent Dmanisi fossil finds suggest a rapid spread, by 1.7 m.y.a., of early Homo out ofAfrica into Eurasia.
  44. H. erectus is associated with the cultural period named Upper Paleolithic
  45. A characteristic trend in hominin evolution has been the increase in brain size, especiallywith the advent of the genus Homo.
Card Set
Antho 1101 II
Cards for the midterm