1. Immunization---What are the 4 types of Vaccines?
    • 1. Whole Cell vaccines -LIVE,
    • *disadv. NOT for immune compromised patients.
    • *EX --- measles, mumps, rebella.
    • 2. Inactivated whole-agent
    • *disadv. NEED booster
    • *EX --- rabies, polio, influenza
    • 3. Subunits
    • *Adv. CANT produce in patients.
    • 4. Conjugated vaccines --- strictly use Polysacharrides as antigen.
    • *Disadv. NO MEMORY CELLS
    • *can by pass this obstacle by binding to a carrier protein to produce MEMORY CELLS.
  2. Factors Affecting Longevity
    • 1. nature of the antigen used
    • *most lasting - ATTENUATED, LIVE
    • 2. Vaccine Boosters, increase time
    • 3. Route of administration
    • *Oral, Nasal aerosol
    • 4. Proper storage of vaccines
    • *LIVE vaccines is most important to have proper storage.
  3. Hypersensitivity Reactions = allergy
    TYPE I
    • Type I (Anaphylactic): - antigens combine with IgE antibodies - can be systemic or localized -
    • *ex: shock associated with venom, hay fever, asthma
    • Type II (cytotoxic): - involves IgG and IgM AND complement destruction of
    • host cells -
    • *ex: transfusion reactions, Rh incompatabilit
    • Type III (Immune complex): - antigen-antibody complexes deposited in tissues - cause an inflammatory response -
    • *ex: arthus reactions, serum sickness
    • Type IV (delayed hypersensitivity):
    • - antigens activate TC (cytotoxic) cells - Tc cells kill host cells -
    • *ex: transplant rejections, contact dermatitis
  4. Mechanism of Type I: Sensitization steps and Hypersensitivity
    • Sensitization: --> Dendritic Cells bind to a pollen (antigen) - present the antigen to T helper 2 cell with MHC2. - T cell then clone itself to produce MEMORY T helper 2 cell, and at the same time call for help from B cell. - B cell then clone itself for MEMORY B cell at the same time makes PLASMA cells to produce adjacent IgE antibodies. (later will bind to mast cells or basophils in order to recognize antigen)
    • Hypersensitivity --> When pollen antigen is bind to adjacent antibodies of mast cell or basophil, degranualation occur, where histamine and other mediators are released.
  5. Localized Anaphylaxis
    • Allergens associated with FOOD and POLLEN
    • *Daily allergy.
  6. Systematic Anaphylaxis
    AKA. Anaphylatic shock
    *associate with venoms --- MECHANISM?
    • mediators --- cause peripheral blood vessels to expand = sudden drop in blood pressure --- SHOCK
    • *Treatment --- Epinepherine Pen to contrict blood vessels.
    • *prevention --- Desensitization = increase IgG instead of IgE. Repeatedly expose to increasing dosage of denatured antigen. effective with animal venoms.
    • *Antibodies IgG & IgM
    • *Complement gets activated as a result of anitbodies binding to the antigen. ---causing cell lysis and damge.
    • *EX--- Immune complex, but no cytotoxic,
    • Most common --- blood transfusion, HEMOLYTIC disease = Rh - mother and Rh+ fetus
    • ---> can be prevented by determining the patient's blood type as well as Rh
    • *5 - 10 hrs symptoms occur
  8. Hemolytic disease
    • Mother is Rh -, when carrying a baby that is Rh +, when breaks in placenta, the antigen from Rh + baby enters the mother's body, making her body produce Anti Rh anitbodies. When the mother is pregnant the second time, the baby with a positive Rh will attract the anti Rh antibody from the mother and lead to attack of the fetus red blood cells.
    • *Prevent sensitization by administering the mother with Anthi Rh first,
  9. TYPE III (immune complex) hypersensitivity
    • antigen binds to antibodies don't get destroyed, but rather attach to host tissue, causing an intense immune response = inflammation of tissue. Tissue destruction often occur
    • *Arthus Reaction --- Local, injection of antigen with a patient that has a large amount of IgG to antigen; EDEMA and HEMORRHAGING = DEAD tissue.
  10. Type IV (Cell mediated) Hypersensitivity Reaction
    • *This reaction only deals with T helper cells only. NO ANTIBODY
    • *takes about 12 hrs+
    • *EX Poison IVY - dermatitis; TB, indication.
    • *In this reaction, Sensitized T helper 1 bind to PRESENTING cell, secrete Cytokines to attract Macrophages and initial inflammation action tissue damage.
  11. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    • *IgG, IgM, IgA antibodies are produced against patient's DNA --- during normal cellular death process. immune complexes deposited in skin, joints, CNS. etc.
    • *occur more frequently in women, butterfly rash on the face.
  12. 4 types of Transplant
    • 1. Autocraft --- own tissue
    • 2. isocraft --- identical twin's
    • 3. Allocraft --- Other's tissue
    • 4. xenocraft --- animal tissues
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