AP Psychology

  1. sensation
    process by which our sensory receptors and nervous syatem recieve and represent the physical energy from the environment
  2. perception
    process by which we organize and interpret sensory info
  3. bottom up processing
    analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works up to the brain;s integration of sensory info
  4. top down processing
    info processing guided by higher level mental process
  5. psychophysics
    study of relationships between physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them
  6. absolute threshold
    min. stimulation needed to detect a stimulus 50% of the time
  7. signal detection theory
    how and when we detect the presense of a faint stimulus
  8. subliminal
    one that is below the absolute threshold for consious awareness
  9. priming
    activation of an association by an imperceptible stimulus, the effect of which is to predispose a perception, memory, or response
  10. difference thershold
    min. differ btw two stimuli required for detection 50 % of the time
  11. Weber's law
    just noticeable difference btw two stimuli is a constant min. proportion of the stimulus
  12. sensory adaptation
    refers to the decreased sensitivity that occurs with continued exposure to an unchanging stimulus
  13. transduction
    process by which receptor cells in the eyes, ears, skin and nose convert stimulus energy into neural impulses
  14. wavelength
    distance from pea of one light wave to the next gives rise to perceptual experiences of hue
  15. hue
  16. intensity
    determined by amplification of the waves and is experienced as brightness adn loudness
  17. pupil
    adjustable opening in the eye thru which light enters
  18. iris
    ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored part of the eye that controls the diameter of the pupil
  19. lens
    transparent structure of the eye, behind the pupil that changes shape to focus images on retina
  20. retina
    light sensitive, multilayered inner surface of the eye that contains the rods and cones
  21. accomodation
    process by which the lens of the ewye changes shape to focus near objects on retina
  22. rods
    • visual reseptors that convert light energy into neural impulse
    • concentrated in periphery of the retina
    • poor sensitivity
    • detect black, white, and gray
    • dim light and peripheral vision
  23. cones
    • visual receptors that convert light energy into neural impulses
    • infovea
    • excellent sensitivity, enable color vision and function best in daylight or bright light
  24. optic nerve
    comprised of axons of retinal ganglion cells, the optic nerve carries neural impulses from eye to the brain
  25. blind spot
    • region of the retina where optic nerve leaves the eye
    • no rods/cones
    • no vision here
  26. fovea
    • retina;s pt. of central focus
    • contains cones
    • images focused on fovea are clearest
  27. feature detetors
    • located in visual cortex of the brain, nerve cells that selectivly respond to specific visual features such as movement, shape, or angle
    • basis of visual info processing
  28. parallel processing
    info processing in which several aspects of a stimulus, such as light or sound, are processed simultaneously
  29. Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory
    maintains that the retina contains red-green and blur sensitive color receptors that in combination can produce perception of any color
  30. opponent process theory
    maintains that color vision depends on paris of opposing retinal processes
  31. audition
    sense of hearing
  32. frequency
    • directly related to wavelength
    • longer wavelengths produce lower pitch
    • determines pitch
    • # of complete wavelengths that can pass a pt in a given time
  33. pitch
    • tone;s experiences highness or lowness
    • determines frequency
  34. middle ear
    • chamber btw eardrum and chochlea containing 3 tiny bones that concentrate vibrations of eardrum on chochleas oral window
    • anvil, hammer, stirrup
  35. cochlea
    coiled bony fluid filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
  36. inner ear
    contains cochlea, semicircualr canals and vestibular sacs
  37. place theory
    • hearing
    • links the pitch we hear with place where the cochleas membrane is stimulated
  38. frequency theory
    • hearing
    • rate of nerve impulses traveling up suditory nerve matches frequency of a tone
    • sense pitch
  39. conduction hearing loss
    caused by damage to mechanial systrem that conducts sound waves
  40. sensorineural hearing loss
    caused by damage to cochleas receptor cells or to auditry nerves
  41. cochlear implant
    device for converting sounds into electecal signals and stimulating the suditory nerve thru electrodes threaded into cochlea
  42. kinesthesis
    sense of the position and movement tot he parts of the body
  43. vestibular sense
    sense of the body movement and position, including balance
  44. gate control theory
    • melzack and wall
    • "gate" in spinal cord determines whether pain signals are permitteer to reach the brain
  45. sensory interaction
    principle that one sense may influence another
  46. Gestalt
    • "organized whole"
    • emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of info into meaningful wholes
  47. figure ground
    organization of the visual field into 2 parts: the figure, which stands out from its surroundings and the surroundings, or background
  48. grouping
    perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into corherent groups
  49. depth perception
    • ability to see objects in 3-D although the images that strike the retina are 2-D
    • allows us to judge distance
  50. visual cliff
    lab device for testing depth perception, especially in infants and young animals
  51. binocular cues
    depth cues that depend on info form both eyes
  52. retinal disparity
    • differences btw images recieve by the left eye and right eye as a result of viewing the world from slightly different angles
    • nearer the object
  53. monocular cues
    depth cues that depend on info from either eye alone
  54. phi phenomenon
    an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in succession
  55. perceptual constancy
    perception that objects have consistent ightness, color, shep, size , even as illumination and retinal images change
  56. color constancy
    perception that familar objects have consistent color despite changes in illumunation that shift the wavelengths they reflect
  57. perceptual adaptation
    our ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
  58. perceptual set
    a mental predisposition to percieve on thing and not the another
  59. human factors psychology
    explores how ppl and machines interact and how machines and physical environments cna be made safe and easy to use
  60. extrasensory perception
    • controversial claim that perception can occur wihtout sensory input:
    • telepathy
    • clairvoyance
    • precognition
  61. parapsychology
    study of ESP, psychkinesis, adn other paranormal forms of interaction btw ind. and environment
Card Set
AP Psychology