1. chemistry
    the science that deals with the structure of matter
  2. matter
    anything that takes up space and has mass
  3. mass
    the amount of material in matter
  4. atoms
    the smallest stable units of matter
  5. proton
    positively charged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom
  6. neutron
    neutrally charged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom
  7. electron
    a negatively charged subatomic particle that travels around the nucleus (weighs much less)
  8. atomic number
    number of protons in an atom
  9. electron shell
    shell surrounding the nucleus of an atom (2, 8, 8.....
  10. element
    a pure substance composed of atoms of only one kind
  11. isotopes
    atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons
  12. mass number
    the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
  13. atomic weight
    the actual mass of an atom, measured in daltons or atomic mass units (amu)
  14. unstable atoms
    unfilled energy levels, they will react with other atoms, usually in ways that give them full outer electron shells
  15. stable atoms
    filled outermost energy level are stable and therefore do not readily react with other atoms
  16. molecule
    any chemical structure consisting of atoms held together by covalent bonds
  17. compound
    a pure chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements, regardless of the type of bonding joining them
  18. ions
    atoms or molecules that carry an electric charge
  19. cation
    ion with a positive charge
  20. anion
    ion with a negative charge
  21. ionic bond
    chemical bonds created by the electrical attraction between anions and cations
  22. covalent bonds
    the sharing of electrons between two atoms to complete their outer shell of electrons
  23. single covalent bond
    sharing of one pair of electrons
  24. double covalent bond
    sharing of two pair of electrons
  25. nonpolar covalent bond
    equal sharing of the electrons
  26. polar covalent bond
    unequal sharing of the electrons, creating a polar (charged) ends ex) H2O
  27. free radical
    an ion or molecule with unpaired electrons in its outermost shell (often unstable, reactive, and destructive)
  28. water; formed by polar covalent bonds
    O attracts H's electrons more strongly than H does (O becomes slightly/partially negative; H becomes slightly/partially positive)
  29. hydrogen bond
    a weak bond with a hydrogen atom, too weak to form its molecules but can change shape and pull molecules together (protein and dna) and the properties of water (surface tension)
  30. chemical reactions occur when...
    bonds are broken, atoms are rearranged, and new bonds are formed
  31. reactants
    what goes in
  32. products
    what comes out
  33. metabolism
    the sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in the body at any given moment
  34. work
    the movement of an object (matter) or change in its physical structure
  35. energy
    the capacity to perform work
  36. kinetic energy
    is the energy of motion - energy that can be transferred to another object and perform work
  37. potential energy
    • is stored energy - energy that has the potential to do work due to the
    • - position of matter (up high)
    • - physical structure of matter (a compressed spring)
    • - chemical structure of matter (bonds)
  38. 4 types of chemical reactions
    • - decomposition or catabolic
    • - synthesis or anabolic
    • - exchange
    • - reversible
  39. decomposition or catabolic reactions
    breaking molecules into smaller fragments (digestion); often require water to break covalent bonds (hydrolysis) and release energy (exergonic)
  40. synthesis or anabolic reactions
    assembling smaller molecules into larger ones (muscle growth); often remove water as covalent bonds are formed (dehydration or condensation) and require energy input (endergonic)
  41. exchange reaction
    shuffle parts of the reactants to make new products
  42. reversible
    at equilibrium, the rates of the opposing reactions are equal (in balance) - depends on the activation energy to go back and forth
  43. activation energy
    the amount of energy required to start a reaction
  44. enzymes
    a protein that promotes chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy requirements
  45. inorganic compounds
    • not primarily made of C and H
    • - carbon dioxide
    • - oxygen
    • - water
    • - inorganic acids, bases, and salts
  46. 4 physiological things that depend on water
    • -solubility - water dissolves most charged or polar molecules
    • -reactivity - chemical reactions occur in water
    • -high heat capacity - water will absorb and release a lot of energy (heat) before changing temperature
    • -lubrication - there is little friction between water molecules
  47. molarity
    the concentration of a solute in moles/L
  48. mole
    the weight (in grams) of a substance that is equal to its molecular weight
  49. pH
    • pH = -log[H+]
    • the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in moles per liter
  50. neutral pH
  51. acidic pH
    below 7
  52. basic pH
    above 7
  53. acid
    any solute that dissociates in solution and releases hydrogen ions (proton donor)
  54. base
    solute that removes hydrogen ions from a solution (proton acceptor), often by releasing OH-
  55. salt
    an ionic compound whose cation is not H+ and whose anion is not OH-
  56. buffer
    compounds that stabilize the pH of a solution by removing or replacing hydrogen ions
  57. buffer systems
    maintain the pH of body fluids, consists of a weak acid and its salt (weak base), releases or removes hydrogen ions in solution ex) carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system; carbonic acid functions as a weak acid and bicarbonate functions as a weak base
  58. organic compounds
    • primarily composed of C and H and usually O
    • - carbohydrates
    • - lipids
    • - proteins
    • - nucleic acids
    • - high energy compounds
  59. lipids: make, general function, 5 classes
    • - C, H, O, significantly less O than carbo
    • - concentrated energy storage, cell membrane, chemical messengers (hormones)
    • - 5classes: fatty acids, eicosanoids, glycerides, steroids, phospholipids/glycolipids
  60. fatty acid: made of, function
    • head: carboxylic acid group -COOH
    • tail: long hydrocarbon chain
    • saturated, unsaturated, mono, poly
    • function: stored energy source
  61. eicosanoids
    • derived from arachindonic acid
    • chemical messenger (local hormones)
  62. triglycerides
    • 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
    • function: concentrated stored energy, thermal insulation, protection
  63. steroids
    • cholesterol and its derivatives
    • - large unique 4 ring structures
    • function: hormones (sex hormones, corticosteroids, calcitriol), membrane structure, digestion
  64. phospholipids and glycolipids
    • have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails
    • function: form cell membranes, form micelles (droplets) in aqueous solutions
  65. protein
    • 3D molecules of C,H,O,N, and some S or P
    • - their specific shapes are vital to performing specific, essential functions
    • function:
    • - support (collagen, keratin)
    • - movement (actin, myosin)
    • - transport (hemoglobin)
    • - buffering (plasma proteins)
    • - metabolic regulation (enzymes)
    • - coordination/control (hormones)
    • - defense (antibodies, clotting proteins)
    • ect...............
  66. amino acids contain.....
    central C, an H, an amino group, a carboxylic acid group, and a variable R group, which differentiates the amino acids types
  67. 4 levels of protein structure
    • 1. primary structure: the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide
    • 2. secondary structure: the local folding of parts of the polypeptide (alpha helix or pleated sheet)
    • 3. tertiary structure: coiling/folding of the entire molecule into an overall 3D shape
    • 4. quaternary structure: the interactions between two or more polypeptides to form a larger protein complex
  68. nucleic acids
    • contain C,H,O,N,P
    • - store and process info inside cells
    • - made of chains of nucleotides
    • - sugar and phosphate backbone with nitrogenous bases attached to the sugars
  69. 2 classes of nucleic acids
    • - ribonucleic acid (RNA)
    • - single stranded
    • - 3 types
    • - messenger RNA (mRNA)
    • - transfer RNA (tRNA)
    • - ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    • - deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    • - the genetic code for protein synthesis and inherited characteristics
    • - double stranded with complementary base pairs A-T C-G
  70. nucleotide
    a pentose sugar + phosphate group + a nitrogenous base
  71. purines and pyrimidines
    • purines: "A" adenine and "G" guanine
    • pyrimidines: "C" cytosine
    • "T" thymine (dna only)
    • "U" uracil (rna only)
  72. high energy compounds
    store cellular energy in high energy bonds for quick release to meet immediate energy demands ex) ATP
  73. adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    made by adding a phosphate group to ADP, can be reversed with help of the enzyme APTase
  74. ATPase formula
    ADP + P + energy <--> ATP + H2O
Card Set
A&P ch.2