Vet Tech Radiology

  1. Definition of X-rays
    A form of electromagnetic radiation similar to visible light but of much shorter wavelength
  2. Who has the credit for discovering X-rays?
    Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
  3. Electromagnetic radiation
    A method of transporting energy through space
  4. Electromagnetic radiation forms are grouped according to wavelength & frequency, this is called what?
    The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  5. Two characteristics of electromagnetic radiation
    • Particles (protns, nuetrns, elctrns)
    • Waves
  6. Generation of X-rays
    Energy from fast-moving electrons from the cathode (-) are attracted to and collide with the anode (+)
  7. What are X-ray beams composed of and what form do they travel in?
    • Composed of bundles of energy (photons)
    • Travel in the form of a wave
  8. What is X-ray absorption?
    When X-rays interact with and stay in the object
  9. Three factors of X-ray absorption
    • Atomic # (greater #'s absorb more)
    • Density of object (how tightly packed the atoms are)
    • Energy of x-rays
  10. What is X-ray penetration?
    When X-rays interact with and pass through the object
  11. Densities of objects from least to most
    • Air
    • Fat
    • Tissues of H2O density
    • Bone
    • Enamel (metal)
  12. What does is mean when you see black on a film?
    The x-rays were not absorbed and made it to the film
  13. What does it mean when you see white on a film?
    It's areas where x-rays were absorbed into the object
  14. What does MPD stand for?
    Maximum Permissible Dose ( max. dose of radiation a person may be exposed to in a given amount of time)
  15. What id used to measure MPD?
    Dosimeter badge
  16. Two catagories of radiation exposure units
    • Absorbed dose (amnt of energy transmtd by ionizng x-rays to matter) *Gy (gray) or RAD -1gy = 100RADS
    • Dose equivalent (amnt of radiatn equal to the absorbd dose in the tissue) *Sv (Sievert) or REM -1Sv = 100REMS
  17. What does proper protection protect from?
    Radiation scatter
  18. What is a fluoroscopy?
    A live radiograph
  19. What are limits?
    Parts of the body not necessarily seen, but are the desired edges of the body part that needs to be included in the primary beam
  20. What are landmarks?
    Parts of the body that can be seen or palpated to make sure the primary beam contains the limits you need
  21. Thorax limits
    • Cr: Thoracic inlet
    • Cd: Diaphragm
    • D: Thoracic vertebrae
    • V: Sternum
  22. Thorax landmarks
    • Cr: Manubrium
    • Cd: Xiphoid process
    • D: Dorsal spinous processes
    • V: Sternum
  23. Abdomen limits
    • Cr: Diaphragm
    • Cd: Pelvic inlet
    • D: Lumbar vertebrae
    • V: Linea alba
  24. Abdomen landmarks
    • Cr: Xiphoid process
    • Cd: Iliac Crest (wings of ilium)
    • D: Dorsal spinous processes
    • V: Belly wall
  25. Whole body limits
    • Cr: Thoracic inlet
    • Cd: Pelvic inlet
    • D: Spine
    • V: Sternum or linea alba
  26. Whole body landmarks
    • Cr: Manubrium
    • Cd: Iliac crest
    • D: Dorsal spinous processes
    • V: Sternum or belly wall
  27. Pelvis limits
    • Cr: Pelvic inlet
    • Cd: Tuber ischii (ischiatic tuberosity)
  28. Pelvis landmarks
    • Cr: Iliac crest
    • Cd: Tuber ischii
  29. Cervical spine limits
    • Cr: C1
    • Cd: C7
  30. Cervical spine landmarks
    • Cr: Wings of the atlas
    • Cd: Dorsal tips of scapula
  31. Thoracic spine limits
    • Cr: T1
    • Cd: T13
  32. Thoracic spine landmarks
    • Cr: Dorsal tips of scapula
    • Cd: Last rib
  33. Lumbar spine limits
    • Cr: L1
    • Cd: L7
  34. Lumbar spine landmarks
    • Cr: Last rib
    • Cd: Iliac crest
  35. T/L junction (T11-L2) limits
    • Cr: T11
    • Cd: L2
  36. T/L junction (T11-L2) landmarks
    • Cr: Last rib
    • Cd: Iliac crest
  37. What are considered body cavities?
    • Thorax
    • Abdomen
    • Skull
    • Spine
    • Pelvis
  38. What are considered extremities?
    • Bones
    • Joints
  39. Positioning terms for body cavities
    • Ventral (V)
    • Dorsal (D)
    • Cranial (Cr)
    • Caudal (Cd)
  40. Positioning terms for extremitites
    • Anterior (A) or Cranial (Cr)
    • Posterior (P) or Caudal (Cd)
    • Palmar (Pa)
    • Plantar (Pl)
    • Dorsal
    • Extention
    • Flexion
  41. What does oblique (O) mean?
    Radiograph taken at an angle other than 90 degrees
  42. Rules for radiographing extremitites
    • Place animal on the affected side
    • Always include joint above & joint below the bone
    • Always include 1/4-1/3 of the bone above & below the joint
  43. What are some positioning devices?
    • Foam wedges
    • Foam boats
    • Sand bags
    • Tape, ties, gauze, etc.
  44. Five steps to processing any film
    • Developing
    • Rinsing/ stop bath
    • Fixing
    • Washing
    • Drying
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Vet Tech Radiology