1. Aortic coronary branches
    Right and left coronary trunk arteries
  2. How does atrial blood flow return to venous system?
    Drains directly into atria
  3. How does ventricular blood flow return to venous system?
    Drains into coronary sinus which empties into right atrium
  4. Collaterals
    • Anastomoses of coronary arteries
    • Protect against arterial blockage effects
  5. Conduit vessels
    Large vessels on surface of the heart
  6. What regulates coronary flow normally?
    Precapillary arterioles (resistance vessels)
  7. What provides energy for cardiac function?
    Oxidative metabolism - i.e. high need for O2 delivery
  8. Angina pectoris
    Discomfort caused by sensory nerve stimulation by metabolite accumulation after myocardial ischemia
  9. Myocardial stunning
    • Poor contractility lasting many days
    • Result of poor perfusion
  10. Myocardial infarction
    • Tissue necrosis due to ischemia
    • Permanent myocyte loss - scar tissue develops
  11. Myocardial hibernation
    • Reversible deterioration of myocytes due to ischemia
    • Decreased contractility
  12. Why is intramyocardial pressure important?
    • Tension in left ventricule can half coronary perfusion during systole
    • Blood flow only in diastole as result
  13. Role of nitric oxide
    • Vasodilator released in response to shear force
    • i.e. blood flow stimulates blood flow
  14. Coronary stenosis
    Occluded (full or partial) coronary vessels
  15. Factors that exacerbate coronary stenosis
    • Decreased arterial pressure
    • Thrombosis
    • Coronary artery spasm
  16. Factors that mitigate coronary stenosis
    • Thrombolysis
    • Coronary collateral formation
    • Arterial wall remodeling
  17. Function of statins
    Stabilize atherosclerotic coronary arteries by:

    • Removing fat
    • Attenuating scar formation
  18. What is myocardial hypertrophy?
    • Thickened myocytes - outgrow blood supply
    • Exertional angina pectoris
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