1. The sacrum is located between what?
    Lumbar vertebrae and coccyx
  2. How many fused bones make up the sacral vertebrae?
  3. How many fused bones make up the coccygeal vertebrae?
  4. What ligaments stabilize the vertebrae?
    Denticulate ligaments.
  5. For each disc, what is the outer fibrous ring called?
    annulus fibrosus
  6. For each disc, what is the inner pulpy elastic substance called?
    nucleus pulposus.Image Upload 1
  7. What causes loss of height over time?
    Narrowing of the intervertebral discs and compression of vertebrae.
  8. What structures does the vertebral foramen contain?
    spinal cord, [ adipose/areolar connective tissue, blood vessels ] = in epidural space

    Image Upload 2
  9. The spinal (vertebral) cavity is what?
    The vertebral foramina of all vertebrae
  10. What 2 structures compose the vertebral arch?
    pedicle and lamina
  11. How many processes arise from each verebral arch?
    Name them.
    spinal cord, [ adipose/areolar connective tissue, blood vessels ] = in epidural space

    Image Upload 3
  12. What kind of vetebrae is this? What characterizes this kind of vertebrae?Image Upload 4
    Cervical (small body), bifid spine, 2 transverse foramina, 1 vertebral foramen
  13. Which vertebrae have the largest vertebral foramen?
  14. Which passes through the transverse foramen?
    vertebral artery/vein and nerve fibers
  15. What is this?
    Image Upload 5
    The atlas (no body, no spine)
  16. Which vertebrae is the vertbra prominens?
    C7 --> can feel at base of neck
  17. What makes the thoracic vertebrae unique?
    They articulate w/ the ribs.
  18. What direction are the articular facets for the lumbar vertebrae?
    • Superior ones: medial
    • Inferior ones: lateral
  19. What type of vertebrae is this?

    Image Upload 6
    lumbar (medially facing superior facet joints), huge body
  20. The manumbrium articulates w/ which ribs
    • 1st and 2nd
    • Image Upload 7
    • http://image.wistatutor.com/content/locomotion-animals/thoracic-vertebrae.jpeg
  21. Which ribs connect to the body of the sternum?
  22. Which ribs are the true ribs?
    1-7, because attach directly to sternum
  23. Which ribs are the false ribs?
    AKA vertebrochondral ribs
  24. How many spinal nerves are there? How many of each
    • 31:
    • 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
  25. Where do spinal nerves exit from the vertebrae?
    Intravertebral foramina
  26. Where does the spinal cord usually end?
    about L2
  27. What is the most common cuse of spinal nerve root damage?
    herniated intervertebral disc.
  28. What are tracts?
    Bundels of Axons in the CNS
  29. What is the equivalent of tracts in the PNS?
  30. Does the dorsal or ventral root have a ganglion?
    Dorsal root ganglion.Image Upload 8
  31. What are the only nerves that go directly to the body structures they supply?
    T2-T12 (all others form plexuses)
  32. Which nerve supplies motor fibers to the diaphragm?
    Phrenic nerve. (which receives contributions from C3, C4, C5)--> so severing above this causes resp. arrest
  33. Which spinal nerves form the brachial plexus?
    C5-C8 & T1
  34. Brachial plexus --> name the division from roots to branches
    roots--> trunks--> divisions--> cords--> branches
  35. Wrist drop indicates injury to what nerve?
  36. This is typical of what type of condition?

    Image Upload 9
    Erb's palsy (waiter's tip position)
  37. Winged scapula can be due to damage to which nerve?
    Long thoracic nerve.
  38. What are the 5 important nerves from the brachial plexus?
    • 1) Axillary
    • 2) Musculocutaneous
    • 3) Radial
    • 4) Median
    • 5) Ulnar
Card Set
Spinal anatomy