Fat-Soluble Vitamins

  1. What are the 2 major classifications?
    Fat Soluble and Water Soluble
  2. What is the 1st fat-soluble vitamin found?
    Vitamin A
  3. What are the three major forms in animals?
    • Retinol
    • retinal
    • retinoic acid
  4. What is Beta-carotene?
    • found in plants
    • you get it from eating carrots
  5. What are the functions of vitamin A?
    • maintains the cornea
    • transparent membrane caring the outside of the eye
  6. Cells in the retina contain the pigment what?
  7. Rhodepsin is what?
    made up of protein opsin and 1 molecule of retinal.
  8. What is epithelial cells?
    Cells that line any surface that has contact with outside
  9. Tissues and cells that produce mucus must have?
    Vitamin A.
  10. Infections diseases are big problems with?
    Vitamin A deficiency
  11. Night blindness
    1st level; when retinal does not receive enough retinal to rejuvenate visual pigment.
  12. Blindness (xerophthalmia)
    • full blindness
    • no vitamin A at cornia.
    • Will get hard and dry which is (reversable)
    • Then eventually very soft (irreversable)= blindness
  13. Keratinization
    • skin cells start making keratin
    • gets dry, rough, and scaley
  14. Beta-Carotene as antioxidant is?
    Biological activity is to act as a antioxidant that can deactivate free radicals.
  15. what are vitamin a deficiencies?
    • infectious disease
    • night blindness
    • blindness (xerophthalmia)
    • keratinization
  16. What are vitamin A toxicity?
    • Bone defects
    • Birth defects
    • Acne treatments
    • Excess beta- carotene leads to skin discoloration
  17. What are bone defects?
    Excessive vitamin A can weaken bones and cause bones to be more prone to fractures
  18. Birh defects?
    Consumes high amounts. About 7th week of pregnancy can happen.
  19. Acne treatment?
    Acutane-causes birthdefects-> vitamin A
  20. What are the functions of vitamin D?
    • 1. enhance absorbtion and the GI track
    • 2. increases reabsorbtion in kidneys
    • 3. increases mobilization from bones to blood.
  21. What are Vitamin D deficiency?
    • Rickets
    • osteomalacia
    • can occur in older adults
  22. Rickets is?
    • In children- causes growth retardation, happens when bones fail to calcify
    • bones weak and bend (boned legs)
  23. Osteomalacia is?
    Adults form of rickets

    • in women with repeated pregnancy
    • low sun exposer
    • low calcium intake
  24. How does vitamin D deficiency occur in older adults?
    • 1. skin, liver, kidney less cappable of making vitamin D
    • 2. don't drink much milk
    • 3. Don't go outside
  25. High blood calcium occurs with?
    • high vitamin D intake causes:
    • calcium stones in soft tissue such as kidneys
  26. Only vitamin D products can cause toxity not from the sun
  27. Vitamin E's most active form is?
    alpha in humans
  28. Erythrocyte hemolysis is what?
    Bursting of red blood cells occurs when poly unsatturated fatty acids in cell membrain of red blood cells oxidize RBC's break open and spill contents

    can occur in infants
  29. Vitamin K is produced by?
    Bacteria and GI track
  30. Ifants are sterol at birth and given what shot?
    Vitamin K so not defestiont
  31. What are the functions of Vitamin K?
    • synthesis of bone proteins
    • blood clotting
    • if you don't have vitamin K proteins cant bind calcium.
  32. Hemorrhagic disease is?
    excesive bleeding because not forming blood clots.
  33. Sources of vitamin K are?
    • bacteria synthesis
    • liver
    • leafy green vegtables
Card Set
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
test 3