1. Hyponatremia
    low sodium
  2. Hematocrit
    % of red blood cells relevatn to fluid volume
  3. Edema
    Increased fluid in the interstitium
  4. What major solute plasma protien assits in oncotic pressure?
    ablumin helps bring H20 back into the capillaries
  5. What causes edema?
    • Increased hydrostatic pressure (BP)
    • Loss of plasma protien albumin due to liver damage
    • Lymphatic obstruction
    • Increased capillary permeability due to inflammation
  6. cytic
    refers to cell size
  7. chromic suffix
    refers to hemoglobin content within a cell
  8. What type of anemia is pernicious anemia?
    • Macrocytic-normaochromic
    • Megaloblastic
    • AKA B12 deficiency
  9. What type of anemia is Iron deficiency anemia?
    Hypochromic - microcytic
  10. What is the cause for Iron deficiency anemia?
    Loss of Iron and Hemoglobin resulting in hypoxia due to blood loss, pregnancy, or lack of iron supplimentation intake
  11. What type of anemia is folate anemia
    Macrocytic anemia
  12. What are the causes of Folate deficiency?
    • Lack of folate causes premature cell death.
    • (Basically same as pernicious anemia, but without intrisic factor IF)
  13. Leukemia
    Uncontrolled proliferation of malignant WBC's causing overcrowding in bone marrow decreasing production of other blood cell types
  14. What are the 2 methods for classifying leukemia?
    • 1. Cell origin (myeloid or lymphoid).
    • 2. degree of differentation that took place before the cell became malignant.
    • (acute = increased growth and less differentation)
    • (chronic = less growth and increased differentation)
  15. Common signs and symptoms of cancer?
    • Fatigue
    • Cachexia
    • Anemia
    • Leukopenia
    • Thrombocytopenia
  16. Adjuvant
    Porophylactic treatemtn such as removing a breast cancer
  17. Palliative
    treatment designed to reduce complications and prolong life. Not a cure. Can include chemo and radiation.
  18. Autocrine stimulation and Ras
    substance secreted by cancer cells that stimulates their own growth
  19. Anaplastic
    abscence of differentation
  20. Carcinoma's are found where
    Epithelial tissue
  21. Sarcoma's are found where?
    connective tissue
  22. Angiogenesis
    generation of new blood vessles
  23. Primary tumor
    Site of tumor origin
  24. Metastasis
    spread of cancer from primary to distant site
  25. Telomere
    protective ends, or caps, on each chromosome that limit the number of times a cell can divide
  26. carcinogenisis
    beggining of tumor development
  27. carcinoma in situ
    Pre-invasive epithelial tuomr of grandular or squamos cell origin
  28. How are tumor markers used
    • Screen and identify individuals at high risk for cancer
    • To help diagnose a specific type of tumor
    • Follow up testing after treatment
  29. apoptosis
    a cells mechanism that tells them ot self destroct when growth is excessive
  30. Adenoma.
    Malignant or benign
  31. Chondrosarcoma
    Malignant or benign?
  32. Instrinsic Factor
    enzyme required for gastric absorption of dietary vitamin B12
  33. What are the causes of pernicious anemia?
    • Lack of vitamin B12 absorption due to lack of IF causing abnomrla DNA & RNA synthesis, which causes premature cell death.
    • Usually congenital genetic disorder or gastritis and death to parietla cells
  34. What are the laboratory diagnostic tests used to detect anemia?
    • CBC
    • Differential count
    • Reticulocyte count
    • Hemoglobin
    • MCHC
    • MCH
    • Hematocrit
    • MCV
    • Chemical analysis
    • Blood coagulation
  35. Differential count
    WBC count
  36. Reticulocyte count
    Bone marrow production
  37. MCHC
    concentration of hemoglobin
  38. MCH
    average weight
  39. MCV
    size of RBC
  40. Blood Coagulation
    PT, PTT, Thrombin time
  41. Eccymoses
    larger areas of bleeding ...bruise
  42. Petechia
    Pinpoint bleeding on skin
  43. Purpura
    condition of bleeding in the tissues (includes petechiae and eccymosis.)
  44. What are the 3 causes of anemia
    • altered production of erythrocytes
    • blood loss
    • increased erythrocyte destruction
  45. Lymphoma
    Malignant or benign?
    Malignant (only exception.)
  46. Curative
    5 years of no signs/symptoms after diagnosis and treatment
  47. What tumor markers are routinely used as a screening test?
    • alph-fetoprotien (AFP) Liver and germ cell produce this into blood
    • Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Prostate secretes this into blood
  48. Oncogene
    mutated in cancer usually accelarates the proliferation of cells
  49. Identify the difference between benign and malignant tumors
    Benign tumors are well encapsulated and well differentiated and do not invade regional lymph nodes.

    Malignant tumors have a rapid growth rate, lack differentiation, lack a capsule, and invade blood vessles.
  50. tumor-suppressor gene
    Substance that controls cell growht or regulator of cell growth
  51. What is the functions/actions and target tissues of ADH
    • water balance regulator; ADH stimulates thirst due to increasing plasma osmolarity.
    • Increases renal tubular permeability absorbing more water thus increasing urine concentration
  52. What is the function/actions and target tissues of Aldosterone
    • Increase sodium reabsorption while increasing Potassium secretion into the renal tubule.
    • Aldosterone is secreted when Potassium is increased or sodium is decreased.
  53. What is the function of angiotensin II?
    Stimulates secreation of aldosterone causing vasocontriction to increase BP
  54. Is sickle cell anemia inherited?
  55. What is the defect and what changes shape with sickle cell anemia?
    abnormal hemoglobin production due to genetic mutation of amino acid valine and deoxygeneration and dehydration givign the RBC's thier abnormal shape.
  56. Why does ischemia nad infarction occur with sickle cell anemia?
    because sickled erythrocytes plug vessles
  57. Why do we occassionally see jaundice and splenomegaly?
    accumulated end products of red cell destruction (hemolysis)
  58. What cell type becomes malignant in multiple myeloma?
    Plama cells
  59. Where is the primary site of multiple myeloma destruction?
    Bone marrow
  60. How is blood cell production effected in multiple myeloma
    Low blood cell production
  61. What happens to the involved bone in multiple myeloma?
    Osteoclasts, relaeased by plasma cells (not normal) destroys bone
  62. What is the cuasitive organism for infectioous mononucleosis
  63. How is Mononucleosis transmitted
  64. Do lymph nodes swell with Mononucleosis infectious
  65. What are the most common S/S with infectious mononucleosis?
    flue like, fever, fatigue, sore throat
Card Set
Test #2