Geography-Industry-South Wales

  1. Explain the physical factors of the early growth?
    • Easily mined black band iron ore, coal and limestone were all found close together
    • Fast flowing rivers provided power source for early mine workings
    • Deep river valleys made it easy to access the coal seams
    • The river valleys e.g. Rhondda provided it an excellent route way to markets at coastal ports e.g. Cardiff
  2. Early growth Human factors
    • Local entrepreneurs were willing to invest in this new industry
    • It made economic sense to build factories and towns next to resources
    • Large scale in-migration from rural areas attracted by the regular income that factories offered
    • A huge easy market in the british empire emcouraged growth as steam power took off-growth of the railways
  3. Explain the decline
    • From the 1950's the raw materials begin to run out and become expensive to mine. this is beacuse the seams became too thing so were to fractured to be economical
    • Iron ore had to be imported from foreign factories which was exspensive
    • Competition from cheap foreign coal (Canada) and the decline of the british empire for easy trade routes
    • Railways bought 50% of the coal but changed to electric due to it being cheaper and cleaner
  4. Explain the rise
    • Goverment aid
    • Development area(south wales) and Enterprise zone(swansea) attracted many companies(ford,honda)
    • Tax free periods and rent free factories
    • Grants for new machinery
    • Subsidies to retrain staff- £300 for each new job
    • Subsidies to assist reelocation costs
    • severn bridge and M4
    • cardiff airport expnaded
  5. Social improvements
    • reduces unemployment and prevents large scale out migration
    • increase income stimulates economy attracting more services
    • more tradesmen required to improve houses
    • more rates and taxes paid to local area to improves servces
  6. Enviromental
    • derelict factories
    • housing in disrepair
    • polluted rivers
    • blackened hillsides
    • slagheaps
Card Set
Geography-Industry-South Wales
Geography-Industry-South Wales