Rapid demobilization occurred after World War II because
within 2 years more than 12 million members had returned, in 1947 1.5 million army members and 700,000 navy members had returned
In order to maintain 2 million people in the armed services after World War II Congress:
passed a peacetime Selective Service Act
The Employment Act of 1946 was significant because it committed the federal government to:
assume responsibility for promoting maximum employment, production, and purchasing power
What were the provsions of The servicemen's Readjustment Act (G.I.'s Bill of Rights)?
- unemployment compensation to veterans who could not find jobs
- loans for purchasing homes, farms, and businesses
- free tuition, books, and subsistence pay for job training and 4 years of college/university training
During Truman's presidency the Republican Congress proposed the 22nd Amendment to the constitution which stipulated:
limit president to 2 terms or 10 years
What were the terms of the National Labor Relations act (Teft-Hartley Act) of 1947?
- condemned unfair union methods
- forbade the closed shop
- allowed right-to-work laws
- president got the power to get a court injunction against a strike
- required unions to report to the Department of Labor the names and compensation of officers, amount of initiation fees, dues, receipts and disbursements, and details of insurance benefits
Which Truman proposals did congress accept?
- raising min. wage from 40 cents to 70 cents
- Housing Act of 1949
- Social Security Act of 1950
The presidential election of 1948 is known for being:
one of the greatest upsets in American political history
What Fair Deal proposals by Truman did congress reject?
- repeal of Taft-Hartley Act
- creation of valley authorities for the Columbia and Miss. River valleys
- approval of St. Lawrence Seaway Project
- admit Alaska and Hawaii
- federal aid to education
- universal military training
- improved farm support program
- a national health insurance program
- a federal anti-poll tax bill
- fair employment practice act
According to Karl Marx private ownership of capital goods and the use of those goods for private gain were the basic causes of:
According to Karl Marx a class war would occur between owners of capital goods, called bourgeoisie, and workers who were called the:
Supporters of communist causes but not joiners of the party were called:
Name the leaders of the Soviet Union up to the 1960s
- Nikita Krushchev
Within two years after the Loyalty review Board started checking the loyality of employees of the federal government about ___ resigned while under investigation.
The second "Red Scare" in the United States was prompted by:
Who was the state department employee found guilty in 1950 of perjury after denying under oath that he passed US secrets to Soviet agents?
Why did Eisenhower and the Republicans win in the 1952 elections?
- Eisenhower was popular as a military commander
- scandels during Truman's admin. were widely publicized
- Republicans capitalized on "Red Scare"
- Stevenson's speeched were dull
Richard Nixon was chosen as Eisenhower's vice presidential running mate because of his:
strong anti-communist stand during "Red Scare"
What was President Eisenhower position on wage and price controls, offshore oil deposits, anti-pollution bills?
- lifted wage and price controls and allowed rent control only in specified areas
- turned over nationally owned offshore oil deposits to adjacent states
- vetoed antipollution bill
What was President Eisenhower's position about federal power, TVA, and public housing?
- vetoed housing
- low income housing continued to be supported but at a reduced rate
- reduced economic controls to check federal governments growing power
- checked expansion of TVA
What New Deal measures were continued during the Eisenhower administration, especially with a Democratic Congress?
- Social Security program
- min. wage
- federal government assisted farmers
The joint US-Canadian construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway, opened in 1959, linked bodies of water to the Atlantic ocean.
Great Lakes with Atlantic by the way of St. Lawrence River
What were the emphases of the National Defense Education Act of 1958?
American education needed improvement after Russia lauched the Sputnik space satellite.
What did the Federal Highway Act of 1956 entail?
- provided 25 billion over a 10 year period for construction of 42,500 miles of interstate highway linking all major urban areas.
- government paid 90% and the states 10%
Know about the independence of the following: Philippines, Netherland East Indies, Indochina, Indian subcontinent.
- Philippines-July 4, 1946
- Indian subcontinent- 4 independent states in 1947-1948, India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Burma
- Indochina-4 small states- 1954, Laos, Cambodia, North and South Vietnam
- Netherland East Indies-1949
The Eisenhower administration pursued the "New Look" in foreign policy which stressed:
Mao's Chinese communist government ended its assault on Quemoy and Matsu after secretary of State John Foster Dulles warned about:
China would not be appeased.
In the 1950s and 1960s many British, French, Italian, and Belgium colonies in (what area) won independence.
Central and Southern Africa.
What Egyptian ruler came to power in 1954 and desired to lead an Arab nationalist movement?
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Britain and France got involved in military actions in the Middle East in 1956 because of their concern over?
The US State Department cancelled a loan offer to Egypt for building the Aswan Darn after learning that Egypt was mortgaging its cotton to
Iron Curtain countries for arms.
The US got Britain and France to withdraw its military forces from the Middle East by threatening to
cut oil shipments to them and withhold loans to Britain from International Monetary Fund.
In 1957 Congress approved the Eisenhower Doctrine which authorized the president to send troops to any nation in the Middle East that asked for help when threatened by:
Secretary Dulles had talked about liberating captive peoples but the US took no actions to help __ in their 1956 revolt
Hungary or poland
The Eisenhower Doctrine was applied by the president in 1958 when he sent troops to
Eisenhower sent troops to Lebanon because of a threat to it by
United Arab Republic
In the U-2 Incident what was the U-2, its pilot, its mission, and the results of it being shot down by Russia?
- photographic plane
- Francis Gary Powell
- taking pictures of soviet military installations
- insisted on an apology but didn't get one, believed using to avoid negotiating and to embarrass US
Eisenhower and Khrushchev made plans to hold a summit meeting after the Soviet leaser demanded that the US, Britain, and France do what
withdraw from West Berlin and to negotiate directly with East Germany over access to West Berlin
In what country was the CIA responsible for the overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz in 1954?
US intervention in Nicaragua in 1954 led too
jacabo arbenz being overthrown
Who made Cuba the first American satellite of the Soviet Union?
In what Latin American country was the dictator overthrown in 1959, a communist government established, the churches forced to close, and banks and major industries taken over by the government?
The 1960 presidential race between Kennedy and NIxon was notable because they
- 1st televised presidential debate in American history
- neither won on issues
The name of Kennedy's program was the
In Kennedy's inaugural address he said "...ask not what your country can do for you - ask what
you can do for your country
The Kennedy administration was successful in getting Congress to
- aid to depressed areas
- a temporary boost in unemployment benefits
- increased social security payments
- a comprehensive housing and community development program
- Area Redevelopment Act
- Trade Expansion Act
- Apollo Space Program
- Peace corps
The Kennedy administration failed to get congress to
- federal aid to education and school building
- slashed 500 million for foreign aid
- mass transportation bill
- Department of Urban and Housing Affairs
- Youth Conservation corps
The most controversial act adopted by congress was the Area Redevelopment Act whish provided for loans and grants to
urban and rural areas where unemployment was high
The Trade Expansion Act of 1962 authorized the president to
reduce tariffs by up to 50% for nations that reciprocated
Kennedy got congress to launch the Apollo space program in order to
land a man on the moon by the end of the decade
Kennedy established the ___ corps which was responsible within 2 years of sending 5000 volunteers to help developing nation improve their education, irrigation, agriculture, health, and sanitation.
President Kennedy reacted in 1962 to the decision by steel companies to raise their prices by
Kennedy approved of the invasion of (what country), in part because during the presidential campaign he had been so critical of the Eisenhower administration for being weak in dealing with the communists.
What were the results of the Bay of Pigs Invasion?
- Castro regime was strengthened in cuba
- drew closer to the soviet union
- US suffered internationally from condemnation and from the spread of anti-yankee sentiments in latin america
- kennedy placed economic blockade on cuba
Responding to JFK's firm stand over West Berlin the Soviet Union:
built a wall between eastern and western zones of berlin
Kennedy responded to Khrushchev's attempt to establish communist control over West Berlin by:
preparing for war.
Kennedy responded to the construction of missile bases in cuba by:
- convened an informal meeting of the executive committee of the national security council
- imposed a quarantine
- consider missile attack
the cuban missile crisis ended when
khrushchev told US to withdraw so kennedy agreed and the crisis was over
internal divisions in the form belgium colony of __ and the involvement there of the US, the UN, and the Soviet Union illustrated the way that the cold war could spread
the 1963 test ban treaty signed by the US and the soviet union
- nuclear testing
- only underground testing was permitted
- led to the fall of khrushchev
- kennedy took the initiative speech
in order to stimulate the economy Johnson for congress to pass the revenue act of 1964 which
11 billion dollar tax cut
the urban mass transportation act of 1964 was a landmark because it involved the federal government in mass transit to deal with the increasing tendency of urbanized areas to
cut across the jurisdictional lines of cities and even states
what programs were associated with johnson's war on poverty
- economic opportunity act of 1964
- job corps
- volunteers in service to america
- community action program
- head start
what was the purpose of each of the following: job corps, VISTA, CAP, and head start?
- Job corps-train young people who lacked marketable skills
- VISTA-group of workerss trained to assist state and local programs in providing community services
- CAP-community programs to improve employment opportunities
- head start-disadvantaged pre-school children
what were the provisions of the civil rights act of 1964
- prohibited public accommodations
- authorized the executive branch to withhold federal grants or contracts from any institution
- attorney general to initiate desegregation suits 6 grade education
- community relations service
which of the following did the civil rights act not prohibit
private clubs from denying equal rights to african americans
was the civil rights act far-reaching
what historical measure occurred regarding the civil rights bill and debate in the senate
senate voted cloture on a civil rights bill
concerning the 1964 presidential campaign why did goldwater lose, who was george wallace, what were the votes of the southern states, and what was the margin on LBJ's victory
- public thought he would be too willing to use nuclear weapons
- governor of alabama
- voted for goldwater
the republican presidential nominee in 1964 who opposed johnson was
johnson's domestic program was called the
one goal of LBJ's great society was that everyone must
have equal opportunities and the quality of life must be improved
johnson got congress to provide $1.1 billion for highway construction, health centers, and resource development for
johnson got congress to establish medicare which is a federally sponsored compulsory medical insurance program of medical aid for
those over 65 under the social security system
what were the provisions of the housing act of 1965
- expanded urban renewal programs
- funds for municipalities
- supplied rent supplement
- department of housing and urban development
the first african american cabinet member was
robert c weaver
johnson brought major change in immigration policy in the immigration and nationality act of 1965 which
eliminating the racist basis for american immigration that had dominated laws since the early 1920s
the voting rights act of 1965 stipulated that __ could register voters in states and political subdivisions where less than 50% of the population had been registered to vote in the 1964 presidential election.
what was the purpose and provisions of the "model cities" act?
- emphasis of the great society on the poor and the urban areas
- coverd up 80% of cost to cities in slum clearance and rehabilitation
- encouraged comprehensive metropolitan planning
whose book, unsafe at any speed, inspired the traffic safety act of 1966
probably the main reason for the slow down of great society programs after 1966 was the
- congressional resentment mounted
- republicans gained 47 seats in the house
- 3 in senate
- business community became resentful of administration
- escalation of war in vietnam
the north atlantic alliance experienced strained relations because
- US senators urged reduction of american forces in europe
- de gualle sympathized with the french speaking separatist movement in quebec
- france continued refusing britain's bid to join the common market
charles degaulle of france contributed to the decline of NATO by
- blocked britain's attempt to join common market
- france withdrew
- nato headquarters to brussels
in 1964 a roit occurred in __ where native students demanded that their national flag be flown alongside the US flag at balboa high school
president johnson sent troops to ___ in 1965 to restore peace and promote a free elections in a place where he feared communist subversion
which nations were involved in waging war on israel in the 1967 six day war
in 1967 israel launched air strikes first on __ after terrorists raided israel from the golan heights
one result of the 1967 six day war is that
- israel proved her superior capability
- retained possession of the occupied territory for protection or for bargaining pieces
- nasser retained support
- egyptians got soviet aid
- problems with peace made by UN
what nation achieved one of the most outstanding military successes in modern history in the 1967 six day war
soviet leader leonid brezhnev: policy or actions regarding nuclear weapons, direct air service to NY, US societ relations, and cold war
- nuclear weapons: both countries agreed not to use or deply nuclear weapons in outer space
- direct air service to NY: and moscow
- US soviet relations: the US still criticized soviet action but continued trying to improve relations
- Cold war: people suggest it had ended
in spite of the soviet union invading __ and replacing alexander dubeck, the US continued trying to improve relations with the soviet union
what party was organized by southern delegates after the democratic convention of 1948 nominated truman on a pro-civil rights platform
in its report, to secure these rights, the committee on civil rights appointed by truman denounced
all government and some private race discrimination or segregation
what alabama governor was an unrestrained critic of the supreme court's decisions on civil rights
truman failed in his legislative efforts in 1949 to promote the pro-civil rights agenda because
the oliver brown et al. bs board of education of topeka, kansas (1954) is perhaps the most momentous judicial decision of the century because the supreme court ruled
"separate but equal" was unconstitutional
resistance in the south to the civil rights movement began to grow after the supreme court issued instructions to federal district courts to implement desegregation
"with all deliberate speed"
the most notorious action in resisting integration occurred in __ where the county board of supervisors eliminated funds from the schools which were closed for 4 years
prince edward county
in resisting integration, virginia implemented massive resistance which included providing __ for parents of children who attended private schools as a result of the closure of public schools
- repealed the state's compulsory achool attendance law
- required withholding of state funds from any school district
the arrest of __ who refused to give up her seat on a city bus in montgomery alabama in december 1955 led to an effective black boycott of the city transit system
in his civil rights efforts martin luther king organized what organization in 1957 which worked primarily through churched
southern christian leadership conference
martin luther king incorporated the "sit-in" into his tactics to achieve civil rights. he got the idea from black college students who staged a "sit-in" at a dime store lunch counter in
by the end of 1961 the public schools of all of the following states except remained completely segregated
who did the university of mississippi board of trustees authorize to accept or reject the application of james meredith to a state univeristy
who sponsored the "freedom riders" to test segregation laws in the south in 1961?
congress of racial equality
where was the lead bus of the freedom riders fire bombed on mother's day, 1961?
after the arrest of the freedom riders and other civil rights participants in jackson, miss in 1961, who petitioned the ICC to ban segregation in interstate travel
what commissioner of public safety met demonstrators in birmingham with clubs, guns. fire hoses, and police dogs
eugene bull connor
the main organizer of the 1963 march on washington was
what state was the focus of freedom summer in 1964
in 1963 martin luther king, jr. and __ staged a demonstration of blacks to protest birmingham's segregation practices
reverend fred shuttlesworth
martin luther king jr. planned a march throughtout alabama and decided to start from selma because blacks there had been denied
being registered to vote
what was the outcome of the civil rights demostrations in birmingham in 1963
- 3000 were jailed
- civil rights bill
in early april 1968 martin luther kind jr was assassinated in memphis tenn. where he had gone to lead a
demonstration of city garbage workers
during the 1963 march on washington martin luther king jr gave a memorable speech entitled
i have a dream
martin luther king jr and marchers went across what bridge at selma on their way to montgomery and were forced by state troopers using tear gas and night sticks to turn around
edmund pettis bridge
what were the objectives of the participants in freedom summer
- establish schools for illiterates
- establish community centers for blacks and assisting african americans in registering to vote
the first major race roit since the end of WWII occurred in the loa angeles suburb of watts after a police officer made a routine traffic arrest and then
struck a black protesting bystander with a club
the black panthers demanded all of the follwing except
- guaranteed income for all citizens
- exemptions of blacks from military service
- government funds for cooperative housing facilities
- reparation payments as retribution for slave labor
- release of all black prisoners
- the use of all black juries to try black defendants
blacks muslims preached all of the following ideas except
superiority of black people and institutions and predicted the eventual collapse of the decadent white society, including the corrupt christian religion
black nationalists promoted black pride because they felt
that white saw black as inferior
the long hot summer of 1967 saw outbreaks of violence in how many communities
what were the recommendations and conclusion of the kerner commission
- vastly increase government expenditures to help african americans
- concluded that white americans must change their attitude toward blacks.