a way of organizing people to perform work (govt workers)
Pendleton Civil Service Act
created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage
a system of hiring and promoting based on the merit principle and desire to create nonpartisan government service
idea that hiring should be based on entrance exams and promotion ratings o produce administration by people with talent and skill
law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics
Office of Personnel Management
the office in charge of hiring for most agencies of the federal government
General Schedule Rating
schedule for federal employees, ranging from GS1 to GS18, by which salaries are determined
Senior Executive Service
9000 federal government managers
What are the 3 theories of bureaucracy?
- Weberian Model
- Acquisitive, monopolistic
- Garbage cans
Weberian Model of Bureaucracy
hierarchical authority structure uses task specialization and develops extensive rules; operates on merit principle and they behave with impersonality
Acquisitive, Monopolistics Model of Bureaucracy
maximizing budget and expanding power; monopolistic of services
Garbage Can Theory of Bureaucracy
loose collection of ideas rather than a coherent structure; organizations have solutions in search of a problem
What are the 4 types of organization for bureaucracies?
- cabinet departments
- regulatory agencies
- government corporations
- independent Executive agencies
Examples of cabinet departments.
Education, energy, commerce, Native Americans, Social Security
Examples of regulatory agencies.
Federal Reserve Board & National Labor Relations Board (responsible for some sector of the economy)
Examples of government corporations.
Examples of independent executive agencies.
National Science Foundation & NASA
the stage of policymaking between the policy establishment and the consequences/results of that policy
What are the 3 elements of policy implementation?
- creation of a new agency/repurposing of old
- translation of policy goals into rules/guidelines
- coordination of resources/personnel to achieve goals
What are 6 reasons why policies fail?
- program design
- lack of clarity of duties
- lack of resources
- administrative routine
- administrator's disposition
Standard Operating Procedures
bring uniformity to complex organizations
authority of administration to select among various responses to a given problem
Street Level Bureaucrats
bureaucrats who are in constant contact with the public and have administrative discretion
use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector
What is an example of the bureaucratic system working effectively?
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Regulations contain what 3 elements?
- grant of power and directions from Congress
- set of rules and guidelines
- means of enforcing compliance
Command & Control Policy
existing system of regulation whereby government tells business how to reach certain goals, checks that commands are followed, and punishes offenders
market-like strategies are used to manage public policy
lifting of restrictions on business/industry for which government rules had been established and bureaucracies had been created to administer
orders from president carry force of law and implement statutes, treaties, and provisions of the Constitution
bureaucratic agency, congressional subcommittee, and interest group who create an "issue network" to shape policies about a particular issue