Gender and FAmilies

  1. The Two-Spirited People
    • -Native Americans that behaved like the opposite sex
    • -Individuals became two-spirited people in one of 2 ways:
    • 1)Developed characteristics as children
    • 2)Experienced spiritual visions during adolescence
    • -Generally accepted by society
    • -Could marry person of same sex
    • -Sometimes females of reproductive age were not allowed to take on two-spirited role
    • -Number of two-Spirited people rapidly declined by end of 1800's
  2. Sex and Gender
    • Sex-Biological characteristics
    • Gender- Social and cultural characteristics
    • -There are 2 genders, but two-spririted people represented a "sort of" 3rd sex
    • -Intersexuals-Born w/ ambiguous sex organs
    • -Brain forms gender identity in response to biological & social cues
  3. Gestational Construction of Gender
    • Gestation-9 month development in the womb
    • -genetic sex is determined at moment of conception
    • -Egg contributes X chromosome, sperm contributes Xor Y chromosome
    • -XX=girl
    • -XY=boy
    • -Hormonal Influences
    • -some scientists believe that the sex hormones, androgens, do more than change genitals
    • -Level of androgens may affect brain development
    • -Biosocial Influences
    • -Biosocial approach: Gender identification & behavior based on peoples innate biological differences
    • -exist only on average
    • -depends on environment in which a person is raised
  4. The Childhood Construction of Gender
    • Parental Socialization
    • -Socialization:process by which one learns the ways of a given society/social group in order to function in it
    • -Socialization Approach:Children rewarded for appropriate gender behavior; punished for inappropriate
    • -Males and females are treated differently from birth on
    • The Media:
    • -children learn from what they see (books, tv, videos)
    • -As recently as the 1960's, children's media was most likely to have male main character
    • -Since feminist movement, more equal treatment is evident
    • -Peer Groups
    • Peer Group:a group of people who have roughly the same age and status as one another
    • -help children to develop a sense of self
    • -Same sex peer groups help children to become socialized as to appropriate behaviors
  5. Doing Gender
    • Interactionist Approach: Gender identification/behavior based on day-to-day behavior that reinforces gender distinctions
    • -Recent thinking is that gender is more fluid/fragile
    • -needs constant reinforcement
    • -constant maintenance
  6. Gender and Male Domination
    • Structure of society--hierarchies of dominance and power
    • Patriarchy-Social order based on the domination of women by men, especially in agricultural societies
    • -Stratifies society
    • Capitalism-An economic system where goods and services are privaely produced and sold on a market for profit
    • -employers hire women at lower rates
    • -women's lower wages create divisions b/n male and female workers
    • -unpaid household work of housewives helps families
  7. Do employers discriminate against women?
    -Comparable worth discrimination-Men and women doing different jobs of equal value for the same company but women get paid less
    • Socialism-Government decides on number and types of goods and who they are distributed to
    • -Gender as primary basis of social stratification
    • -In order to really understand social stratification, all 3 overlapping lenses (GENDER, CLASS, and RACE) must be studied
  8. Men and Masculinities
    • -Often look at gender from women's conditions
    • -In 1980's began looking at masculinity
    • -Set of personal characteristics that society defines as being typical of men
    • -Many feel that "essence" of men such as aggressiveness and emotional detachment is a social construction
    • -Fathers are capable of nurturing children, but do so differently than mothers
  9. Contributions of Gender Studies
    • -Different approached to studying gender
    • -Socialization
    • -Biosocial
    • -Interactionist
    • -Patriarchy
    • -Sociologists contributions:
    • -Roles of mena dn women are part socially and culturally constructed
    • -Gender distinctions sometimes reflect differences b/n men & women
    • -Patrilocal:kinship system in which newly married couples live w/ the husband's parents
Card Set
Gender and FAmilies
Gender and Families