1. What is neoclassicism?
    • Around the end of WWI (1918) we see, for the first time, a conscious break with tradition
    • Some aspects that changed with end of WWI Music was no longer meant to be "emotional"
    • sentimentality/nature are no longer valid subject matters
    • Music was now just about music.. not about representing things
    • Music that assimilates pre-Romantic ideas
  2. What is a musical style that came about at the end of WWI? The style was no longer meant to be emotional, music was just about music.
  3. History of Stravinsky
    • Stravinsky in 1913 - continued a little bit on his "Russian" path
    • Communists then took over Stravinsky's heritage
    • Soviet Union did not sign any international copyright agreements until 1970
    • No money for Igor...wanted to break with his "Russian" style
    • 1914 - moved to Switzerland 1920 - moved to Paris
    • In addition to rejection of Romantic aesthetics, romantic performance practices were also rejected
    • Stravinsky rejects strings - sees them as "cold" and dehumanizing
    • Stravinsky takes on an active roll as performer
  4. Les Noces
    • Genre: Ballet
    • Artist: Stravinsky
    • "The Wedding"
    • all music is Russian-folk based
    • all text is Russian-folk based
    • Maximalization of orchestrational ideas from Rite
    • 1913-1923
    • Last work for Ballets Russes
    • Ear-tag
    • Percussion and chorus.. with random vocal soloists
    • This was really a curveball ("a bad joke" said the press)"
    • Noone could possibly have forseen that this would have been made by Stravinsky and that it would have been so influential" - Copland
  5. Ballet, last one for Ballets Russes, maximalization of orchestration from Rite, "a bad joke". Composition and Composer?
    Les Noces - Stravinsky
  6. Octet for Winds
    • Genre: Octet
    • Composer: Stravinsky
    • 3 mvmts
    • Sinfonia
    • Variations
    • Finale
    • abstract forms and harmonic relationships
    • overuse of classical and baroque gestures - trills, ornaments
    • This was all about the music - as abstract as possible. No meaning intended.
    • Basically a commentary on all these romantic ideas - a lot of parody and irony.
    • overuse of forms - and clarity of forms is primary
    • 1st mvmt VERY clear sonata form, almost clearer than Haydn
    • 3rd mvmt bossa nova-ish foxtrot
  7. 3 movement work, overuse of classical and baroque gestures; all about the music - as abstract as possible. Clearer sonata form than Haydn. Composer and Composition?
    Stravinsky - Octet for Winds
  8. Symphonies d'instruments a vent (Symphonies for Wind Instruments)
    • Genre: Symphony
    • Composer: Stravinsky
    • Rejecting Russian and romantic aesthetics
    • The Symphonies of Wind Instruments is a concert work written by Igor Stravinsky in 1920, for an ensemble of woodwind and brass instruments.
    • One movement.
    • Dedicated to the memory of Claude Debussy, who died in 1918
    • premiered in London in 1921
    • Conducted by Serge Koussevitzky.
  9. An example of rejection of Russian and romantic aesthetics, dedicated to Claude Debussy, premiered in London in 1921, one movement work. Composition and Composer?
    Symphonies for Wind Instruments - Stravinsky
  10. "Les six"
    • Group of six composers:
    • Georges Auric
    • Darius Milhaud
    • Arthur Honegger
    • Francis Poulenc
    • Germaine Taileferre
    • Louis Durey
    • Tried to make entirely French music (no outside influences) (except Jazz)
  11. What is the name of the group of composers that tried to make entirely French music?
    "Les Six"
  12. Jean Cocteau
    • Did the scenario for Satie’s "Parade"
    • Said tha young French composers should not be influenced by Debussy
    • Encouraged young composers to follow Satie’s musical aesthetics
    • Broke new ground with film
  13. Who was the man that did the scenario for Satie's "Parade"? He also discouraged French composers from following Debussy, and instead influenced them to follow Satie.
    Jean Cocteau
  14. Pablo Picasso
    Artist who did costumes and props for Satie's "Parade"
  15. Who was the artist who did costumes and props for Satie's "Parade"?
    Pablo Picasso
  16. Francis Poulenc
    • 1899-1963
    • Very rich, aristocratic family
    • Initially the music is so simple and influenced by jazz, and a little Stravinskian harmony
    • People thought he was a nobody
    • By 1920, compositional maturity hit Francis
    • He played into satire and irony that was a big fad at the time
    • 1944 Returned to "Lifestyle Modernism" (see Les Biches)
    • First opera: Les mamelles de Tiresias
    • Apollinaire coined the term "surrealism": he wrote the play that the opera is based on
    • No person had ever wrote an opera with so much attention to breasts than Poulenc
    • Premiered at the Opera Comique in 1947
    • Denise Duval - sang the lead role, had a relationship with Poulenc
  17. Name the composer who wrote in "Lifestyle modernism" or "surrealism"; he wrote Les Mamelles de Tiresias; he wrote Les Biches; had a relationship with Denise Duval
    Francis Poulenc
  18. Apollinaire
    Coined the term "surrealism." Wrote the play Les Memelles de Tiresias
  19. Denise Duval
    sang the lead role in Les Mamelles de Tiresias; Francis Poulenc's lover.
  20. Who coined the term "surrealism"? He also wrote the play Les Mamelles de Tiresias.
  21. Who sang the lead role in Les Mamelles de Tiresias? She was also Francis Poulenc's lover.
    Denise Duval
  22. Les Biches
    • "The doe's"
    • Genre: Ballet
    • Composer: Francis Poulenc
    • 1924 in Monte Carlo
    • Plotless
    • Girls flirt with dudes in bathing suits
    • Three styles
    • 18th Century dance suite (pre-Romantic music)
    • French 'classical' ballet of early 19th century
    • Contemporary dance hall music
    • "Stylistic promiscuity" - Represented that in plot and music
    • Incorporated at random
    • "Lifestyle Modernism"
  23. "Lifestyle Modernism"
    • Exact opposite of expressionism
    • Void of emotional depth, only superficial
    • Composers realize this is kind of a dead-end musically
    • Poulenc moved away from it until 1944
  24. Ballet, premiered in 1924 in Monte Carlo, plotless, three dance styles, reflected "lifestyle modernism", about girls flirting with dudes in bathing suits. Composer and Composition?
    Les Biches - Francis Poulenc
  25. "Parade"
    • Composer: Satie
    • Genre:
Card Set
Music History 3 Test 3