ibhs lab quiz 8

  1. means genitals or reproduction
  2. reproductive organs, whether male or female, or internal or external
    genitals or genitalia
  3. the study of diseases of the female reproductive organs
    • gyneco logy
    • gynec/o = female
    • -logy = study of
  4. a specialist in the study of these diseases
    gyneco logist
  5. external female genitalia
  6. 5 structures of the female external genitalia (vulva)
    • mons pubis
    • labia majora (labia majus, singular)
    • labia minora (labia minus, singular)
    • clitoris
    • openings for glands
  7. pertaining to the vulva
    • vulval or vuvlar
    • vulv/o = vulva
    • -al or -ar = pertaining to
  8. uterine tubes that transport the ova to the uterus (womb)
    fallopian tubes
  9. the birth canal
  10. provides nourishment from the time the fertilized egg is implanted to the time of birth of the fetus
  11. the latter stages of the developing young and, in human beings, is the time in utero after the first 8 weeks
  12. within the uterus
    in utero or intra uterine
  13. outside the uterus
    extra uterine
  14. lowermost cylindric part of the uterus
    • cervix uteri
    • commonly called the cervix
    • the combining form cervic/o means the neck or the cervix uteri
  15. what are the 3 layers of the uterus
    endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium
  16. two meanings: either measurement or uterine tissue
  17. the tissue that forms the lining of the uterus
    • endo metr ium
    • endo- = inside
    • metr/o = uterine tissue
    • -ium = membrane
  18. the thick muscular tissue of the uterus
    • myomentrium
    • my/o = muscle
  19. the membrane that surrounds the uterus
    • perimetrium
    • peri = around
  20. located on each side of the uterus; function in ovulation and in the production of two important hormones (estrogen and progesterone)
  21. the production of ova
  22. hormones released by the ovaries and are responsible for the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, preparation of the uterus for pregnancy, and development of the mammary glands
    estrogen and progesterone
  23. breast
  24. discharge of a bloody fluid from the uterus at fairly regular intervals, approximately once a month, from puberty to menopause... is the sloughing off of the endometrium that has been prepared to receive a fertilized ovum but is not needed
    menstruation or menses
  25. marks the end of a woman's reproductive period
    climacteric or menopause
  26. cervic/o
  27. colp/o, vagin/o
  28. genit/o
  29. gonad/o
    genitals or reproduction
  30. gynec/o
  31. hyster/o, uter/o
  32. metr/o (occasionally metr/i)
    • uterine tissue
    • sometimes metr/o means measure
  33. oophor/o, ovar/o
  34. salping/o
    uterine tube (fallopian tube)
  35. vulv/o
  36. -cidal
  37. cyst/o, vesic/o
    bladder, cyst or sac
  38. men/o
  39. rect/o
  40. urethr/o
  41. urin/o
  42. the study of cells
  43. collection and examination of cells from the vagina and cervix; the term may also refer to the collection of material from other surfaces that shed cells
    pap smear or papanicolaou smear/test
  44. involves the use of a low powered microscope to magnify the mucosa of the vagina and cervix
  45. the examination of the abdominal cavity through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall; this surgical procedure is especially useful for inspection of structures within the pelvic cavity as well as collection of biosy specimens and certain types of surgeries
    laparo scopy
  46. prevention of pregnancy by means of medication, device, or method that blocks or alters the process of reproduction
  47. absence of menstrual flow when it is normally expected
    • amenorrhea
    • a = without
    • men/o = month
    • rrhea = discharge
  48. painful menstruation
    • dysmenorrhea
    • dys = difficulty
  49. excessive flow during menstruation
    • menorrhagia
    • rrhagia = hemorrhage
  50. bleeding from the uterus at any time other than during the menstrual period; litterally means hemorrhage from the uterus
    • metrorrhagia
    • remember that it is abnormal bleeding that doesn't have to do with menstruation!!!
    • men/o = menstruation
    • metr/o = uterine tissue
  51. a fibrous or mucous stalked tumor of the cervical mucosa (lining)
    cervical polyp
  52. general term for tumors that bleed easily and are found on mucous membranes
  53. inflammation of the cervix and vagina
  54. inflammation of the vagina
    • colpitis or vaginitis
    • colp/o = vagina
  55. a condition in which tissue that somewhat resembles the endometrium is found abnormally in various locations in the pelvic cavity
    • endometriosis
    • endo = inside
    • metr/i = uterine tissue
    • osis = condition
  56. inflammation of the endometrium
  57. an abnormal, tubelike passage between 2 internal organs or between an internal organ and the body surface
  58. an abnormal opening between the rectum and vagina
    rectovaginal fistula
  59. an abnormal opening between the bladder and the vagina
    • vesico-vaginal fistula
    • vesic/o = bladder
  60. prolapse of the uterus
    • hysteroptosis
    • hyster/o = uterus
    • ptosis = sagging
  61. a common benign fibroid tumor of the uterine muscle
  62. an inflamed condition of an ovary
    • oophoritis
    • oophor/o = ovary
  63. inflammation of an ovary and its uterine tube
    salping/o = uterine tube
  64. cancer of an ovary, a malignancy that is rarely detected in the early stage and usually far advanced when diagnosed
    ovarian carcinoma
  65. infection of the upper genital organs beyond the cervix, often involving the peritoneum and intestines
    pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  66. a syndrome of nervous tension, irritability, weight gain, edema, headache, painful breasts, sleep changes, and other symptoms occuring a few days before the onset of menstruation
    premenstrual sydrome (PMS)
  67. inflammation of the uterine tube
  68. hernial protrusion of a uterine tube
    • salpingocele
    • cele = hernia
  69. any malignancy of the uterus, including the cervix or endometrium
    uterine cancer
  70. inflammation of the vulva
    • vulvitis
    • vulv/o = vulva
  71. a contraceptive device that is inserted into the uterus by a physician
    intra uterine device (IUD)
  72. sometimes placed in the vagina to kill sperm, but are not as effective as other contraceptive methods
    spermi cides
  73. a sterilization procedure that can sometimes be reversed
    tubal ligation
  74. a method of fertilizing the ova outside the body by collecting mature ova and placing them in a dish with spermatozoa before placing them in the uterus for implantation, may be useful when failure to conceive is caused by insufficient numbers of sperm
    in vitro fertilization (IVF)
  75. the primary intervention for women who suffer the symptoms of menopause or those at high risk for osteoperosis (the abnormal loss of bone density and deterioration of bone tissue)
    hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
  76. plastic surgery of the vagina
    • coloplasty
    • colp/o = vagina
    • plasty = surgical repair
  77. suture of the vagina
    • colporrhaphy
    • -rrhaphy = suture
  78. excision of a cone of tissue from the cervix performed to remove lesion from the cervix to obtain tissue for biopsy; this procedure is sometimes performed with a dilation and curettage (D&C)
    conization of the cervix
  79. a surgical procedure that expands the cervical opening (dilation or dilatation) so that the uterine wall can be scraped (curettage)
    dilation and curettage (D&C)
  80. surgical removal of the uterus
  81. removal of the uterus through the abdominal wall
    • abdominal hysterectomy OR laparohysterectomy
    • lapar/o = abdominal wall
  82. removal of the uterus through the vagina
    vaginal hysterectomy
  83. abdominal exploration using a lighted instrument which allows for direct visualization of the abdominal contents
  84. an instrument inserted during laparoscopy to allow movement of the uterus during the examination
  85. an abdominal operation; surgical opening of the abdomen done for various purposes
  86. surgical removal of one or both ovaries
    • oophorectomy
    • oophor/o = ovary
  87. surgical removal of a uterine tube
    • salpingectomy
    • salping/o = uterine tube
  88. removal of an ovary and its accompanying uterine tube
  89. removal of both ovaries and their uterine tubes
    bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
  90. suture of a uterine tube
  91. sterilization by surgically binding or crushing the uterine tubes
    • tubal ligation
    • ligation means binding or tying
  92. the union of an ovum and sperm, resulting in an embryo
  93. embedding of the fertilized ovum, usually occurs in the endometrium
  94. fertilized ovum
  95. extraembryonic membranes, form around the embryo and give rise to placenta
    amnion and chorion
  96. a membrane through which the fetus derives nourishment during pregnancy
  97. developing embryo is called this after 8 wks
  98. an adjective that refers to the fetus
  99. hormone that is produced a few days after fertilization and can be detected in body fluids;testing for this hormone in urine or blood can indicate whether a woman is pregnant; can be detected before other signs of pregnancy appear
    human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
  100. provides an image of the developing fetus; has many uses in obstetrics, including the detection of an embryo implanted outside the uterus
    ultrasound or ultra sono graphy
  101. implantation of the embryo outside the uterus
    extrauterine or ectopic pregnancy
  102. means happening before birth and after birth
    • prenatal and postnatal
    • nat/i = birth
  103. a newborn infant up to 6 wks of age
  104. the branch of medicine that specializes in the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth
  105. another word meaning pregnancy, the period of time from contraception to birth
  106. synonym for childbirth
  107. means before childbirth and after childbirth
    antepartum and postpartum
  108. refers to a woman who has never given birth to a viable offspring
    • nullipara
    • (can also have unipara, secundipara and tripara... one, second and three)
  109. a woman who is pregnant for the first time is called this
    • gravida I or 1
    • or primigravida
    • gravida II/2, III/3 are used to designate subsequent pregnancies
    • a person can be gravida III (pregnant for the 3rd time or para 0 = no ive births, same as nullipara)
  110. amni/o
    amnion (fetal membrane)
  111. fet/o
  112. nat/i
  113. par/o
    to bear offspring
  114. -para
    a woman who has given birth
  115. average period of gestation (pregnancy) is approximately ___ days from the date of fertilization but is clinically considered to last ___ days from the first day of the last menstrual period
    266, 280
  116. surgical removal of the fetus from the uterus
    cesarean section (abbreviated as C-section)
  117. describes the part of the fetus that is touching by the examining finger through the cervix or that has entered the mother's lesser pelvis during labor
    fetal presentation
  118. the normal and most common fetal presentation
    cephalic presentation
  119. fetal presentation in which the buttocks, knees or feet are presented
    breech presentation
  120. one in which the long axis of the baby's body is across the long axis of the mother's body, and the shoulder is presented in the cervical opening
    shoulder presentation
  121. separation of the placenta from the uterine wall 20 weeks or more gestation or during labor, often results in severe hemorrhage
    abruptio placentae
  122. the innermost of the membranes that surround the developing fetus
  123. hots the fetus suspended in amniotic fluid
    amniotic sac
  124. transabdominal (through the abdomen) puncture of the amniotic sac to remove amniotic fluid; the material that is removed can be studied to detect genetic disorders or other abnormalities
  125. surgical rupture of the fetal membranes, performed to induce or expedite labor
  126. a congenital condition characterized by mild to severe mental retardation and caused by an abnormality, usually the presence of 3 of chromosome 21, rather that the expected pair
    down syndrome
  127. a first trimester prenatal screening test that is designed to provide specific information about the risk of down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities; the test consists of a combination of ultrasound measurement and blood test performed between 11 weeks, 1 day and 13 weeks, 6 days of pregnncy
  128. a surgical procedure in which an incision is made to enlarge the vaginal opening for delivery
  129. an anemia of newborns characterized by premature destruction of RBCs and resulting from maternal fetal blood group incompatibility, specifically involving the Rh factor and aBO blood groups
    • erythroblastosis fetalis
    • also called hemolytic disease of the newborn
  130. assessment of the fetus in utero, usually with respect to its heartbeat (by electrocardiography)
    fetal monitoring
  131. any of several means used to correct infertility, including administration of hormones, use of vaginal medications, surgery, counseling and in vitro fertilization
    fertility treatments
  132. abnormal implantation of the placenta in the uterus so that it impinges on or covers the opening at the upper end of the uterine cervix
    placenta previa
  133. the circular pigmented area of skin surrounding the nipple
  134. what determines the size of the breast?
    the amt of adipose tissue (fat)
  135. the female breasts are milk producing glands are called ?
    • mammary glands
    • mamm/o = breast
    • ary = pertaining to
  136. each breast lobe is drained by ___ duct that has openings in the nipple
    lactiferous duct
  137. the secretion of milk
    • lactation
    • lact/o = milk
    • ation = process
  138. a diagnostic procedure that uses radiography to study the breast
    mammo graphy
  139. removal of the lump or tumor, treatment of breast cancer
  140. pain in the breast
    • mastalgia and mastodynia
    • because the suffixes -algia and -dynia mean pain
  141. means painful breast
  142. sagging breasts
  143. surgical procedure to lift the breast
    • mastopexy
    • pexy = surgical fixation
  144. plastic surgery to increase the size of the female breast
    • augmentation mammoplasty
    • reduction mammoplasty is to reduce the size
  145. male gonads
    • testes
    • testicle = singular
  146. transfers sperm to the vagina
  147. a lose fold of skin that covers the glans penis
  148. stores sperm
  149. pouch of skin that contains the testes and epididymis
  150. begins at the epididymis, continues upward and enters the abdominopelic cavity; each one joins a duct from the seminal vesicle to form a short ejaculatory duct, which passes through the prostate gland
    ductus deferens or vas deferens
  151. paired; contribute an alkaline mucus-like fluid to the semen
    bulbourethral glands
  152. important male hormone that induces and maintains male secondary sex characteristics
  153. responsibility of the testes; the formation of mature functional sperm
    • spermato genesis
    • spermat/o = sperm
    • genesis = formation
  154. a mixture of sperm cells and secretions
    semen or seminal fluid
  155. mature male sex cells
    sperm or spermatozoa
  156. orchi/o, orchid/o, test/o, testicul/o
  157. pen/o
  158. prostat/o
  159. scrot/o
    scrotum, bag
  160. semin/o
  161. ser/o
  162. spermat/o
  163. urether/o
  164. vas/o
    vessel or duct, sometimes ductus (vas) deferens
  165. nonmalignant, non inflamatory enlargement of the prostate, most common among men older than 50 yrs
    • benign prostatic hyperplasia
    • hyper = increase
    • plasia = formation
  166. undescended testicles; failure of the testicles to descend into the scrotum before birth
    • cryptochidism
    • crypt = hidden
    • orchid = testis
    • ism = condition
  167. accumulation of fluid in a sac-like cavity, especially serous tumors of the testes or associated parts
    • hydrocele
    • hydr/o = water
    • cele = hernia
  168. inflammation of the testes
    orchiditis or orchitis
  169. a slowly progressing cancer of the prostate; commonly detected by a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test and rectal examination; treatment is by surgery, radiation therapy or hormones
    prostatic carcinoma
  170. inflammation of the prostate
  171. axial rotation of the spermatic cord that cuts of blood supply to the testicle
    testicular torsion
  172. surgical removal of the end of the foreskin that covers the head of the penis; usually performed shortly after birth for hygienic or religious reasons
  173. surgical removal of a testicle (often done to treat malignancy of a testicle
    orchidectomy or orchiectomy
  174. excision of both testes
  175. plastic surgery of the testis, particularly the surgery performed to correct a testicle that has not descended properly into the scrotum
  176. surgical fixation of an undescended testicle to the scrotum
    • orchiopexy or orchidopexy
    • pexy = surgical fixation
  177. removal of all or part of the prostate
  178. partial or complete reomval of the prostate gland by passing a cytoscope through the urethra
    transurethral prostatectomy or transurethral resection, abbreviated as TURP
  179. removal of all or a segment of the vas deferens, usually done bilaterally to produce sterility
  180. surgically reconnecting the ends of the severed ductus deferens, done to correct an obstruction as a form of vesectomy reversal
  181. a treatable bacterial disease transmitted by intimate sexual contact; the most common sexually transmitted disease in the US
    chlamydial infection
  182. a contagious genitourinary infection caused by a bacterium that is commonly called gonococcus; diagnosed by finding of gonococci in a urethral or vaginal smear and by culturing the organism
  183. antother STD caused by spirochetes
  184. primary lesion that appears 2-3 wks after a person is infected with syphilis
  185. highly infectious STD characterized by blisters and ulcerations on the genital organs; unlike gonorrhea and syphilis, this is caused by a virus and is more difficult to treat
    herpes genitalis
  186. fatal late stage infection with HIV and usually involves a fatal form of immunodeficiency; characterized by opportunistic infections and malignant tumors that rarely afflict health individuals
    acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  187. means a lowered or deficient immune response
  188. a condition with a defined set of signs and symptoms that are not necessarily caused by the same disease
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ibhs lab quiz 8
ibhs lab quiz 8