1. Upper Course
    • River uses its energy to erode and transport bed load
    • There is very little deposition due to rapid river flow
    • River flows across steep ground which gives it a lot of energy and a high velocity
    • This allows the river to transport large boulders
    • The river erodes through Hydraulic action and abrasion
    • The river is shallow and the banks are resistant to erosion so most erosion is vertical, forming a v-shaped valley
  2. Middle course
    • Gradient decreases so velocity and energy decrease
    • Smaller energy can only transport only smaller bed load- sand and silt
    • River erodes at outer banks of meanders where velocity is greatest
    • Deposits on inner bank where velocity is slower
    • River banks are less rocky and erosion is lateral, forming meanders and flood plains
  3. Lower course
    • Transports mainly suspended load
    • Main process is deposition
    • Land is almost flat so velocity and energy very small
    • Only transpots tiny material (silt and clay) in suspension causing water to look brown
    • Large meanders develop through lateral erosion and ox-bow lakes form in easily eroded ares
    • Deposited material across river bank forms levees
Card Set