circulatory and respiratory quiz

  1. Tell the pathway of air through organs from outside the body to the bloodstream
    • 1. nose - air comes in, nose lined with hair to catch bad stuff, warms air
    • 2. pharynx - both air and food passes through
    • 3. epiglottis - keeps food from going into lungs
    • 4. larynx - has strings called vocal cords, which allow you to speak
    • 5. trachea - traps germs with cilia, made of tough muscle supported by cartilage
    • 6. bronchus - branch off like trees
    • 7. alveoli - gives air to blood, which takes it throughout body
    • 8. diaphragm - muscle that allows you to breathe, it expands and air is pulled into lungs, contracts and air is pushed out
  2. Tell how to take care of your respiratory system
    • don't smoke
    • use a dust mask or respirator when doing things that make particles go into the air
    • don't exercise when pollution is bad outside
  3. Describe the differences between asthma and emphysema
    • Asthma - caused by organic particles, pollution, food allergies, psychological factors. In an asthma attack, muscles contract around bronchioles and excessive mucus is produced, this blocks airways
    • Emphysema - caused by lack of stretching in the alvioli - alvioli start to break down - hard to exhale because air is trapped in the lungs
  4. What is the pathway of blood in the body?
    Heart -> arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries -> venules -> veins -> heart
  5. Describe arteries
    • have muscular walls
    • slightly narrower
    • carry blood from the heart
    • blood is more red because it contains more oxygen
    • blood squirts from a cut artery because artery walls help squeeze blood through the body
    • blood moves more quickly
  6. Describe veins
    • have thinner, weaker walls
    • slightly wider
    • carry blood back to the heart
    • blood is bluish red because oxygen has been used up
    • blood flows slowly from a cut vein
    • skeletal muscles around veins help squeeze blood along; valves in veins keep blood from flowing backwards
    • blood moves more slowly
  7. Describe capillaries
    • thinner than a hair
    • blood moves slowly
    • delivers oxygen and nutrients to cells
    • picks up CO2
  8. Know the functions of the circulatory system
    • transports things like oxygen, CO2, food, water, hormones, waste
    • helps regulate body temperature
    • protects the body against invading microorganisms
  9. What are the four components of blood?
    • plasma
    • red blood cells
    • white blood cells
    • platelets

    Blood is 55% plasma and 45% cells
  10. Describe plasma
    • clear, watery liquid part of the blood
    • carries nutrients and waste
  11. Describe red blood cells
    • almost doughnut-shaped
    • mature cells have no nucleus
    • red from a protein called hemoglobin, which carries oxygen
  12. Describe white blood cells
    • colorless, have an ameboid shape perform phagocytosis (swallowing up infected or damaged cells)
    • form antibodies to help body recognize and fight infections
    • release heparin, which keeps the blood from getting too thin
  13. Describe platelets
    • shaped like round disks
    • helps blood clot
  14. How do you care for circulatory system?
    • exercise at least 15 minutes/day
    • diet: limit saturated fat, which can clog arteries; limit sugar, which can stiffen artery walls; limit salt, which can raise blood pressure
    • don't smoke
    • brush your teeth to prevent plaque buildup
  15. What are the differences between a heart attack and a stroke?
    Heart attack - the coronary artery becomes blocked, which causes the heart muscle to die. If damage is severe enough, a heart attack can be fatal.

    Stroke - blood vessel in the brain is blocked or ruptures. Causes brain damage which can result in impaired speech, movement or death.
Card Set
circulatory and respiratory quiz
7th grade biology