cog psych

  1. What is long term memory?
    is fundamental to every act of cognition. LTM is the portion of the memory system responsible for holding information for more than seconds of minites
  2. Can we truly test the capacity and duration of LTM?
    No. We cannot every know the entirety of someone's experiences and therefore never be able to fully test their ability to accuatly remember all of those experiences
  3. Declarative Memory (Explicit Memory)
    the intentional recollection. knowledge can be retrieved and reflected on consciously.
  4. Nondeclarative Memory (Implicit or Procedural Memory)
    the knowledge that can influence thought and behavior without necessary involvement of conscious awareness. Memory for actions/skills/languages
  5. What two memory systems can declarative memory be broken down into?
    Semantic Memory and Episodic Memory
  6. Semantic Memory
    General world knowledge
  7. Episodic Memory
    AKA autobiographical knowledge. the memory of chronologically remembered experiences
  8. What is a mnemonic device and why is it useful?
    "to help memory". Active, strategic learning device or method, a rehersal strategy. Helps provide durable and distinctive record of material in memory. guides you through retrieval by providing effective cues for recall
  9. What are some examples of mnemonic devices?
    • Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge
    • *Categorical clustering
    • *Interactive Images
    • *Pegword System
    • *Method of Loci
    • *Acronym
    • *Keyword System
  10. Categorical Clustering
    organize a list of items into a set of categories
  11. Interactive Images
    Create interactive images that link the isolated words in a list
  12. Pegword System
    Associate each new word with a word on a previously memorized list, and form an interactive image between the two words
  13. Method of Loci
    Vizualize walking around an area with distinctive landmarks that you know well, and then link the various landmarks to specific items to be remembered
  14. Acronym
    Devise a word or expression in which each of its letters stands for a certain other word or concept
  15. Acrostic
    Form a sentence rather than a single word to help you remember the new words
  16. Keyword system
    Form an interactive image that links the sound and meaning of a foreign word with the sound and meaning of a familiar word
  17. How did Ebbinhaus study memory? What were some findings of his study of human memory?
    Nonsense Syllables (NSS - didn't want meaning to complicate things). Studied his own memory. Learned a list and then set aside for time then recall attempt. SAVING SCORE, FORGETTING CURVE, and OVER-LEARNING
  18. Saving Score
    Ebbinghaus tradition. The reduction in the number of trials necessary for relearning compared to the original learning.
  19. Forgetting Curve
    Ebbinghaus tradition. The reduction in savings as a function of time until relearning.
  20. Over-learning
    stronger memory trace
  21. With the Ebbinghaus Tradition Longer lists...
    were harder to learn but had more opportunity to over-learn
  22. Metamemory
    knowledge about one's own memory, how it works, how it fails to work.
  23. Metacognition
    Knowledge about one's own cognition system and it's functioning
  24. Metacognitive Awareness
    how aware are we of what's going on in our own head?
  25. What is rehearsal?
    A deliberate recycling or practicing of the contents of the short-term
  26. Is frequency important in rehearsal?
    Yes. The greater number of rehearsals the greater the recall.
  27. 2 effects of rehearsal
    maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal (transfer into LTM)
  28. Maintenance Rehearsal
    low-level, repetitive info recycling - INFO IS GONE once rehearsal stops (phone number)
  29. Elaborative Rehearsal
    rehearsal that uses the meaning of the info to help store and remember
  30. Craik & Lockhart’s Levels (or Depth) of Processing Theory
    levels of processing vrs stages. Any perceived stimulus receives some mental processing. Some receive shallow sort, others get deeper processing.
  31. Challenges to the Craik & Lockhart’s Levels (or Depth) of Processing Theory
    Baddeley (78) - defining levels is problematic and circular. Used Task effects - recognition Y/N tasks. Most of the research that supported levels relied on recall tasks not recognition tasks
  32. Challenges to the Craik & Lockhart’s Levels (or Depth) of Processing Theory
    Glenberg et al (77) asked Pp to repeat words as a distraction task then surpirsed with free recall task. manipulated time of repitition-recall task better. **According to levels - time shouldn't matter
  33. the variety of ways that we can facilitate episodic memory
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  34. Encoding specificity and its variants
    • Endel Tulving (73) Anderson (90) - the probability of recalling item at test depends on the similarity of its encoding at test and its original encoding at study.
    • *Mood Congruent Learning
    • *State Dependant Learning (drunk)
  35. Does decay or interference seem to be responsible for the loss of information from episodic memory?
    • Decay - the older a memory is the more likely it is to be forgotten. *Thorndike - the law of disuse: habits and extension memories that are used repeatedly are strengthend and those that are not are weakened.
    • *McGeon (32) - prob not time-interference
    • *Jenkins and Dallenback (24) - sleeping Pp remembered more b/c fewer interference activities (replicated in 07)
  36. retrieval failure
    Fulving and Pearlstone (96) - Pp study list, 1 group free recall (40%), 1 group cued recall (62%).
  37. forgetting
    loss from memory. There may be no genuine forgetting just problems with retreiving - retrival failure/inhibition.
  38. tip-of-the-tounge phenomenon
    when you momentarily are unable to recall something you know you know
  39. Amnesia
    a loss of memory or memory abilities caused by brain damage or disease - can be temporary or permanent.
  40. Two types of amnesia
    • Retrograde - loss of memory of events prior to the injury/disease, almost always shows a temporal gradient
    • **the older memories will be better preserved - Ribots Law
    • Anterograde - loss of memory of events after the injury/disease, especially disruption in acquiring LTM
  41. Collins and Quillian model of semantic memory
    Structure - Network:an interrelated set of concepts or interrelated body of knowledge, Nodes: point or location in the semantic space, concepts and Pathways: labeled, directional associations between concepts

    • Retrieval - spreading activation: the mental activity of accessing and retrieving info from the network - this activation spreads through the network
    • Interaction - when two spreads of activation meet
  42. Smith Feature Overlap model
    Structure - feature list: a list of semantic features (simple, one-element characteristics or properties of the concept) Order of feature lists: definingness (most to least defining) Definging features: necessary

    • Retrieval - feature comparison process Stage 1: global comparison of features
    • Stage 2: careful and slow, uses only defining features
  43. Explain semantic relatedness and how this related to the organization of semantic memory
  44. Does the amount of knowledge you have influence what you remember?
    yes. the more you know the more you are able to learn.
  45. What are “perceptual symbols?”
    barsalow (1999) theory of perceptual symbols - semantic memory is built up of sensory and motor elements derived from experience
  46. Explain a typical priming task and the results of empirical tests of priming.
    mental activation of a concept by some means, or the spread of the activation from one concept to another.
  47. Facilitation in a priming task
    positive influence on processing
  48. Inhibition on a priming task
    negative influence on processing
  49. Does priming seem to be an automatic or a controlled process?
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  50. What are the characteristics of human categories?
    loose and fuzzy, graded membership
  51. How were traditional studies of concept formation conducted and what is the classic view of categorization?
    Pp patterns and ask them to decide wherhte ror not it is part of the concept being tested. People creat and use categories based on a system of rules that are necessary and sufficient
Card Set
cog psych
exam 3