science test 4

  1. define meterology
    is the study of the atmoshere
  2. define weather
    at a given time and locale place describing the atmospheric conditions
  3. define climate
    is a desciption of atmospheric condtions over long periods of time for large geographical region
  4. what are the 6 elements of atmosphic conditions and the instruments for testing them
    • 1. air temp- liquid themometer
    • 2. air humidity- psychrometer
    • 3.type and amount of clouds- visual,shape, color, and how high
    • 4.type and amount of precipitation-rainguage
    • 5.air pressure-mercury barmeter
    • 6.speed-anmometer
    • direction of wind-windsocks/windvanes
  5. what is the starting temp of atmosphere in cintagrade and f (room temp)
    • 20 degrees cintagrade
    • 68 degrees f
  6. what is the atmosphere and why is what makes up the atmosphere here
    a mixture of gases that are trapped by gravity
  7. what are and where do the 2 main sources of gases in atmosphere come from
    • 1. igneous activities- via, volcanic & fissure
    • 2. biological activities-via,photosynthesis & decay
  8. on average if air is clean and dry what is the percent (equals 100) of gas & what type of gas
    • 78%=nitrogen gas (N2)
    • 21%=oxygen gas (O2)
    • 1%= argon & carbon dixiode (Co2)
  9. what are the 3 variable componets in air
    • 1. H2O vapor-#1 most significate gas in the atmosphere meterologically-its know as the weather maker
    • 2. aresols- vivid hues of red and oranges at sunrise and sunset-are tiny particle droplets capable of floating- dust,salt,pollen,oils
    • 3. Ozone (Cz)-it is toxic to the respiatory system is a layer of ozone, is concentrated in the upper region is called Ozone sheild and it protect us from radiation 99% of UV rays
  10. what is the process of photosynthesis
    • step1. to split water
    • 2. make carbohydrates it keeps hydrgen and releases oxygen
    • 3.UV splits O2 and makes Oz in the atmosphere
  11. define temperature
    refers to a measurement of the heat in a substance- therometer is used to measure it
  12. define heat
    • refers to the form of energy associated with molecular motion
    • (knenetic of molecules)
  13. define specific heat
    refers to the energy needed to raise 1 gram of a substance 1 degree
  14. define latent heat
    (hidden)- refers to the energy needed for 1 gram of a substance to change state(phase)
  15. latent heat-how many calories dose it take for a solid to become liquid and whats it called
    80 cal- melting
  16. latent heat-how many calories dose it take for a liquid to freeze and what is it called
    80 cal- freezing
  17. latent heat-how many calories dose it take for a liquid to become a gas and whats it called
    600 cal- evaporation
  18. latent heat-how many calories dose it take for a gas to change to a liquid and whats it called
    600 cal- condensation
  19. meteologicaly what is the only one that changes state
  20. if i raise one gram of water 1 degree it is called
    a calorie
  21. what does rotation mean in regards to the earth
    day =1 full spin around axis
  22. what does revolution mean in regards to the earth
    year= 1 orbit around the sun
  23. what are the two solstice, their time of year, and where are they in regards to earth
    • summer-(jun 21-22,) the day the sun has reached its highrst point in the sky longest day of the year.
    • winter-(dec 21-22,) sun has reached the lowest point in the sky shortest day of the year
  24. what effects the seasonal heat
    angle of incoming radiation more direct the greater the intensity
  25. what are the two equinoxs ,their time of year and where are they in regards to the earth
    • spring -(march 21-22,) halfway through they year
    • fall-(sept 22-23,) halfway through the year
  26. what are the 3 mechanisms of heat transfer
    • 1. conduction- transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity
    • 2. convection-is the transfer of heat by mass movement of circulation w/ a substance
    • 3.radiation-is the heat transfer by which solar energy reaches the planet
  27. in regards to radiation what is the % reflected back to space -what do we call it and how does it make us look
    30%-(ALBEDO)-makes us very shinny and pretty
  28. in regards to radiation what % is absored by atmoshpere
  29. in regards to radiation what % is absorbed by land and water
  30. in regards togases in the atmosphere what are the most abdanant gases and their %
    • 21%-oxygen
    • 71%-nitrogen
  31. what is global warming and why does it occur
    occurs on this planet because gases trap the radate heat wont let it escape and acts like a blanket
  32. in regards to global warming what do we call these gases and what number one and whats number two
    greenhouse gases-1-h2o vapors,2-co2
  33. altitude as it refers to temperture
    the higher you go the colder it gets
  34. what direction do pervaling winds flow
    they always blow the same direction all the time
  35. what is across the water called as it refers to wind
  36. what is across the land called as it refers to wind
  37. if its nighttime and you have cloud cover what dose that mean
    it is warmer and the clouds act like a blanket
  38. what are isotherms
    are lines on maps connecting points or places having the same temperture
  39. in the northern hemi what is the coldest,average,hostest temp over land
    • cold-40 degrees
    • average-70 degrees
    • hot-35 degrees
  40. in the southern hemi what is the coldest,average,and hostest temps over land
    • cold-20 degrees
    • average-50 degrees
    • hot-30 degrees
  41. what is water vapor in the atmosphere called
  42. what is releative humdity
    ratio of water needed in air compared to total water vapor needed for saturation at a givem temp
  43. what is used to mesaure relative humdity
    a sling psychometer
  44. how does the sling psychometer work
    you have a wet bulb and a dry bulb they are slung back and forth and it measures how long it takes the wet bulb to evepervate
  45. what does it mean if you have a great difference between the wet and dry bulb
    relative humdity is lower
  46. what does dew point mean
    when air reaches saturation (air cant hold anymore water)
  47. what would expect at sunrise
    higest dewpoint means highest humdity
  48. what is adiabatic temp and what do you get with expanding and contracting
    • is a change in temp when a substance expands or contracts due to a change in pressure
    • expands-cools
    • contracts-heats
  49. what is air pressure and when is 50% gone and whenis 90% gone
    • refers to the weight of air above a given point
    • 50%-3.5 miles above sea level
    • 90%-10 miles above sea level
  50. the dry adiabatic rate - air goes up it cools and air goes down it heats what is the contant degree that the adiabatic dose this every 1,000 meters rather its up or down
    10 dgrees c
  51. what is the ELR
    Enviromental Lapse Rate
  52. when does the ELR occour
    is a change in temps with altitude in the troposhere (surface layer)
  53. if you have a low ELR what do you call weather
    absolute stability- all good weather
  54. if you have a high ELR what do you call weather
    absoulate instability-weather is bad
  55. what are clouds
    suspend water droplets in the air
  56. as it refers to clouds anything below 2km is called
  57. as it refers to clouds anything between 2km and 6km is called what
  58. as it refers to the clouds anything above 6km is called what
    high- cirro
  59. what do we call clouds at ground level
  60. if a cloud has a cirro perfix what does that mean
    it is high
  61. if a cloud has an alto prefix it means what
    its in the middle
  62. what do nimbo stratus clouds look like
    white, pale ,fluffy
  63. what do stratus clouds look like
    sheet like layers
  64. what do cumulus clouds look like
    fluffy,gobbed together
  65. what dose a cumulonimbos cloud look like
    dark ,grey
  66. higher the cloud the more what it has
  67. what is a cirrus cloud called
    mane's tail
  68. what does suppercooled refer to in refence of a cloud
    water in liquid state below 0 degrees
  69. how is preciptation measured
    a standard rain gage i.e. 10km opening(mouth) and a 1km tube
  70. when do we call water that refreezes on the down after leaving a cloud
  71. what do we call water that freezes than fall from a cloud
  72. what is the most common from of weather
  73. what is rain
    it is when water droplets become to heavy to stay in a cloud
  74. water freezes at what temps
    • 0 degrees C. and
    • 32 drgrees F.
  75. water evporates at what temps
    • 100 degrees C. and
    • 212 degrees F.
  76. what is the bergernor process
    suspend water droplets ( due to the process of being supercooled) in clouds
  77. what is supercooled mean
    water freezes at a temp of (-40 degrees C, and -40 degrees F)
  78. hot air does what
  79. cold air dose what
  80. what does the torricelli mercury barometer measure
    air pressure
  81. what is standard sea level air pressure
    14.7 pounds per square inch
  82. who is torricelli
    a famous student of Galileo invented the barometer (time frame around 1643)
  83. in the barometer when air pressure increases mercury does what
    it rises in the tube
  84. in the barometer when air pressure decreases mercury does what
    it sinks in the tube
  85. standard atmospheric pressure at sea level requires (what) inches of mercury
    • 29.92 inches
    • 76 cm
    • 1011 millibars
  86. if you have a low front whats you air doing
    • warm and wet
    • air is riseing
    • air is convergeing
    • moving up and inward
    • air flows,counter clockwise
  87. if you have a high front whats your air doing
    • cold and dry
    • air is sinking
    • air is divergeing
    • moving down and outward
    • air flows, clockwise
  88. how do fluids flow
    from high to low
  89. what does pressure gradient determine
  90. what are Isobars
    lines on a map that connecting points or places having the same pressure
  91. if you have close Isobars what can you say about the wind
    it is high
  92. if you have not close Isobars what can you say about the wind
    it is low
  93. 66 1/2 degrees above the equator but below 90 degrees you have a high air flow whats it called and what direction does it flow
    • polar easterlies
    • east to west
  94. above the equator between 23 1/2 degees and 66 1/2 degrees you have a mid air flow whats it called and what direction does it flow
    • westerlies
    • west to east
  95. almost at the equator you have a low air flow whats it called and what direction does it flow
    • trade winds
    • east to west
Card Set
science test 4
mrs. shelton-lowe