Biology ch 12

  1. hybridization
    The mating of unlikly parents
  2. self-fertilization
    A fourth advantage of studying peas is that both the male and female sexual organs are enclosed with each pea flower, and gametes produced by the male and female parts of the same flower can fuse to form viable offspring.
  3. reciprocal crosses
    using pollen from a white-flowered plant to fertilize a purple-flowered plant, then using pollen from a purple -flowered pland to fertilize a white flowered plant.
  4. first filial generation or F1
    The offspring resulting from a cross between a parental generation (P); in experimental cross, these parents usually have diffrent phenotypes
  5. dominant
    An allele that is expressed when present in either the heterozygous or the homozygous condition.
  6. recessive
    An allel that is only expressed when present in the homozygous controlled, by being "hidden" by the expression of a dominant allele in the hetrozygous condition.
  7. second filial generation or F2
    The offspring resultinf from a cross between members of the first filial (F1) generation.
  8. mendelian ratio
    The characteristic dominantto-ressive phenotypic ratios that Mendel observed in his genetics experiments. for example 3:1
  9. alleles
    One of two or more alternative states of gene.
  10. homozygous
    having two identical alleles of the same gene; the term is usually applied to one to one or more specific loci. (W/W or w/w)
  11. heterozygous
    Having two different alleles of the same gene; the term is usually applied to one or more specific loci. (W/w)
  12. genotype
    The genetic constitution underlying a single trair or set.
  13. phenotype
    The realized expression of the geno type; the physicalappearance or functional expression of a trial
  14. principle of segregation
    The two alleles for a gene segreate during gamete formation and are rejoined at random, one from each parent, during fertilization.
  15. punnett square
  16. pedigree
  17. dihybrid cross
  18. Principle of Independant Assortment
    In a dihybrid cross, the alleles of each gene assort independently. the segregation of different allel pairs is independent.
  19. product rule, or rule of multiplication
  20. polygenic inheritance
  21. continuous variation
  22. quantitative traits
  23. Pleiotropic
  24. incomplete dominance
  25. codominant
  26. epistsis
Card Set
Biology ch 12