components of the psychophysical personality, on which beings commonly impute
the false notion of self. There are five aggregates, each based on the previous one: Form , Feelings, Discriminations, Consciousness, Compositional Factors
the doctrine of “No-Self” or “No-Soul”. One of the three marks of existence, along with dukkha
‘suffering’ and anitya/anicca ‘impermanence’
a person who has destroyed the mental defilements (the three poisons) through the teaching of a Buddha and becomes liberated from samsara
Literally “Entering the Path of Enlightenment,” sometimes
called “A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life.” Written by Shantideva during the 8th century CE.
literally ‘the mind of Awakening,’ the altruistic intention to achieve awakening in order to benefit all other beings. Consists of two types, aspiring and actually engaging.
literally ‘awakening being,’ one who has generated bodhicitta and seeks awakening for the benefits of others. The Bodhisattva or Bodhisatta refers to the Buddha before his Awakening.
To which stage of Buddhism does each ideal belong?
bodhisattva versus arhat ideal
necessary aspects for a bodhisattva to attain enlightenment: Form Body and Reality Body.
bodies of the Buddha, two
the actual physical body of a Buddha, created through the accumulation of merit
collection of virtues and qualities, created
through the accumulation of Wisdom
Reality Body( lit Dharma Body)
Siddhārtha Gautama at birth, who is credited
with establishing the Buddhist doctrine (Dharma)
in the present era
calming and stabilizing the mind and cultivating
positive emotions such as compassion. Necessary for enlightenment.
(sometimes called interdependent origination)
The process of causation, in which all phenomena are created, sustained, and pass in dependence on causes and conditions. It is composed of the 12 links
the teaching and practice of Buddhism. Compare
with dharma in Hinduism.
Gandhi’s analysis of individuals consists of: body, manas, atman, swabhava
Dimensions of Human Beings, Four.
Four Noble Truths, compoased of: Wisdom, Ethical Conduct, Mental Discipline or Concentration, Exchange of Self or Other
Right view and right intention
Right speech. right action, right livelihood
Right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration
Mental Discipline or Concentration
a form of meditation to develop bodhicitta that
focuses on the fact that all beings suffer in the same way that we do. This is the most distinctive form of meditation found in the Bodhicaryāvatara.
Echange of Self and Other
Lumbini, Bodhgaya, Sarnath , Kushnigar
4 major pilgrimage sites of Buddhism
birthplace of Buddha
the place where Buddha became awakened
place where Buddha was first taught
Place where Buddha died
The nature of suffering (Dukkha), Suffering's origin (Samudaya), Suffering's cessation (Nirodha), The Way, the Eightfold Path, leading to the cessation of suffering
Four Noble Truths
four events that caused the Buddha to give up his life royal ease to seek Awakening
1.a sick person 2. an old person 3. a corpse 4. a world-renouncing ascetic
one of the four orders of Tibetan Buddhism,
sometimes called the ‘Yellow Hat’ school. It was founded by Tsong Khapa. The Dalai Lama is the head
of this order.
literally the “Lesser Vehicle,” a pejorative
term used by those that practice the Mahāyāna
for Mainstream Buddhism
to gain insight to ‘the way things really are’, such as the three marks of existence, dependent origination, and the doctrine of No-Self
literally “Great Vehicle,” this is the form of Buddhism that began to develop around the beginning of the Common Era with the ideal of the bodhisattva
Sometimes called Early Conservative Buddhism. The dominant form of Buddhism for the first 500 years after Buddha (approx. 500 BCE – 0 CE). The ideal is the arhat.
1. All originating things are impermanent.
2. All defiled things are linked to suffering.
3. All things (esp. the Self or Soul) are empty.
marks of existence, three
the Buddha’s teaching which is a rejection of both worldly sensual pleasures and painful self-mortification
The Middle Way
the 12 links of dependent origination:
ignorance, karma, consciousness, name and form, six senses or sources, contact, feeling, or grasping, attachment, existence, birth, aging and death
the six qualities in which bodhisattvas train
to achieve Awakening. They are:
Generosity, Ethics, Patience, Endeavor, Meditative Concentration, Wisdom
greed, hatred or version, delusion
giving of one’s possessions and one’s self or
virtue, morality, discipline, proper conduct
tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance
energy, diligence, vigor
one-pointed concentration, contemplation
The six different types of rebirth possible according to Buddhism. They are:
- Most Fortunate Position b/c Awakening
3) Hell Dwellers or Beings
4) Pretas(Avaricious Spirits or Hungry Ghosts)
5) Asuras (Lesser Gods or Demigods)
realms of existence
the community of Buddhist monks, nuns, and
laymen and laywomen.
(lit. “seizing the truth” or “the struggle for
truth”) Truth-force. The term used by Gandhi to describe his method of nonviolent opposition to social and political injustices.
one who is adept in the methods and philosophy
one of the ways to develop bodhicitta that focuses on meditating that all beings have at one time been our parents and helping them through compassion
the seven steps
the ritual outlined in the Bodhicaryāvatara that
consists of 7 parts:
1. Homage to the Three Jewels
2. Presentation of offerings
3. Confession of one’s faults
4. Rejoicing in the merits of others
5. Requesting the Buddhas to remain in saṃsāra
6. Requesting the Teaching (Dharma) for them
7. Dedication of merit
Seven-Limbed Prayer or the Supreme Worship
8th century Indian monk who was the writer of the Bodhicaryāvatara
The lifetime in which the Buddha becomes a bodhisattva by taking a vow to achieve Enlightenment in the presence of a previous
Sumedha or Sumati
a teaching attributed to the historical Buddha
goods made in one’s own country; indigenous products or ideas
self-rule’ or freedom in the political sense; for Gandhi it also meant having control over oneself
The Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha
founder of the Gelukpa Order in Tibetan Buddhism
the monastic code in Buddhism
Originally term for Vedic sacrifice. In Classical Hinduism it means any activity undertaken in the spirit of sacrifice to any deity. For Gandhi, it is human interdependence and mutual service.