A technique use to transfer colonies from one medium to another.
Molecule to which a polymerase can attach to begin DNA Replication
Replication in which a new DNA double helix is synthesized from one strand of parent DNA and one strand of new DNA
A set of three DNA (or mRNA) bases that code for an amino acid
A mutation that occurs in the absence of any agents known to cause changes during DNA replication
The first codon in a molecule of mRNA which begins the sequence of amino acids in protein synthesis; in bacteria it always codes to methionine.
The last codon to be translated in a molecule of mRNA, causing the ribosomes to be released from the mRNA
A gene that carries information for the synthesis of a specific polypeptide.
DNA used as a pattern for the synthesis of a new nucleotide polymer in replication or transcription
The synthesis of RNA from a DNA template
Type of RNA that transfer amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes for placement in a protein molecule.
The synthesis of protein from information in mRNA
A chemical mutagen that can be inserte between bases of the DNA double helix causing frameshift mutations.
A chemical mutagen that can add alkyl groups (-CH3) to DNA bases, altering their shapes and causing errors in base pairing.
The form of a gene that occupies the same place (locus) on the DNA molecule as another form but may carry different information for a trait.
Test used to determine whether a particular substance is mutagenic based on its ability to induce mutations in auxotrophic bacteria.
A three-base sequence in tRNA that is complementary to one of the mRNA codons, forming a link between each codon and the corresponding amino acid
the opposite head-to-tail arrangement of the two strands in a DNA double helix
A genetic control mechanism that terminates transcription of an operon prematurely when the gene products are not needed.
the weakening of the deases producing ability of an organims
An organism that uses carbon dioxide gas to synthesize organic molecules
A chemical mutagen similar in molecular structure to one of the nitrogenous bases found in DNA that causes point mutations
Process by which the presence o a preferred nutrient (often glucose) represses the genes coding for enzymes used to metabolize some alternative nutrient.
a structure that contains the DNA of organisms
A sequence of three bases in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid in the translation process.
An enzyme that is synthesized continuously regardless of the nutrients available to the organism
Mechanism for repair of damaged DNA by several enzymes that do not require light for activation; the exercise defective nucleotide sequences and replace them with DNA complentary to the unaltered DNA strand.
A chemical mutagen that can remove an amino group (-NH2) from a nitrogenous base, causing a point mutation.
The removal of one or more nitrogenous bases from DNA, usually producing a frameshift mutation
Two adjacent pyimidines bonded together in a DNA strand, usually as a result of exposure to ultraviolet rays.
An enzyme that moves along behind each replication fork, synthesizing new DNA strands complementary to the orginial ones.
End product inhibition
Feed back inhibition
A mechanism whereby the genes coding for enzymes needed to metabolize a particular nutrient are activate by the presence of that nutrient.
Mechanism by which the presence of a particular metabolic represses the gene coding for enzymes used in its synthesis
The region of a gene (or mRNA) that codes for a protein in eukaryotic cells.
An enzyme that removes segments of DNA
REgulation of a metabolic pathway by the concentration of one of its intermediates or, typically, its end-product, which inhibites an enzyme in the pathway
A test to determine that resistance to chemical substances occurs spontaneously rather than being induced.
Mutation resulting from the deletion or insertion of one or more bases.
A linear sequence of DNA nucleotides that form a functional unit within a chromosome or plasmid
The one-on-one relationship between each codon and a specific amino acid
The science of heredity, including the structure and regulation of genes and how these genes are passed between generations
The genetic information cantained in the DNA of an organism
The transmission of genetic tratis from an organism to its progeny
A mutation produced by agents called mutagens that increase the mutation rate
A substance that binds to and inactivates a repressor protein.
An enzyme coded for by a gene that is somestimes active an sometimes inactive