Chapter 7 Micro (1-49)

  1. Carcinogen
    a cancer produding substance
  2. DNA Replication
    Formation of new DNA molecules
  3. Replica Plating
    A technique use to transfer colonies from one medium to another.
  4. RNA Primer
    Molecule to which a polymerase can attach to begin DNA Replication
  5. Semiconservative Replication
    Replication in which a new DNA double helix is synthesized from one strand of parent DNA and one strand of new DNA
  6. Sense Codon
    A set of three DNA (or mRNA) bases that code for an amino acid
  7. Spontaneous Mutation
    A mutation that occurs in the absence of any agents known to cause changes during DNA replication
  8. Start Codon
    The first codon in a molecule of mRNA which begins the sequence of amino acids in protein synthesis; in bacteria it always codes to methionine.
  9. Stop Codon
    The last codon to be translated in a molecule of mRNA, causing the ribosomes to be released from the mRNA
  10. Structural Gene
    A gene that carries information for the synthesis of a specific polypeptide.
  11. Template
    DNA used as a pattern for the synthesis of a new nucleotide polymer in replication or transcription
  12. Terminator
    Stop codon
  13. Transcription
    The synthesis of RNA from a DNA template
  14. Transfer RNA

    Type of RNA that transfer amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes for placement in a protein molecule.
  15. Translation
    The synthesis of protein from information in mRNA
  16. Acridine Derivative
    A chemical mutagen that can be inserte between bases of the DNA double helix causing frameshift mutations.
  17. Alkylating Agent
    A chemical mutagen that can add alkyl groups (-CH3) to DNA bases, altering their shapes and causing errors in base pairing.
  18. Allele
    The form of a gene that occupies the same place (locus) on the DNA molecule as another form but may carry different information for a trait.
  19. Ames Test
    Test used to determine whether a particular substance is mutagenic based on its ability to induce mutations in auxotrophic bacteria.
  20. Anticodon
    A three-base sequence in tRNA that is complementary to one of the mRNA codons, forming a link between each codon and the corresponding amino acid
  21. Antiparallel
    the opposite head-to-tail arrangement of the two strands in a DNA double helix
  22. Attenuation
    A genetic control mechanism that terminates transcription of an operon prematurely when the gene products are not needed.

    the weakening of the deases producing ability of an organims
  23. Auxotroph
    An organism that uses carbon dioxide gas to synthesize organic molecules
  24. Base Analog
    A chemical mutagen similar in molecular structure to one of the nitrogenous bases found in DNA that causes point mutations
  25. Catabolite Repression
    Process by which the presence o a preferred nutrient (often glucose) represses the genes coding for enzymes used to metabolize some alternative nutrient.
  26. Chromosome
    a structure that contains the DNA of organisms
  27. Codon
    A sequence of three bases in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid in the translation process.
  28. Constitutive Enzyme
    An enzyme that is synthesized continuously regardless of the nutrients available to the organism
  29. Dark repair
    Mechanism for repair of damaged DNA by several enzymes that do not require light for activation; the exercise defective nucleotide sequences and replace them with DNA complentary to the unaltered DNA strand.
  30. Deaminating Agent
    A chemical mutagen that can remove an amino group (-NH2) from a nitrogenous base, causing a point mutation.
  31. Deletion
    The removal of one or more nitrogenous bases from DNA, usually producing a frameshift mutation
  32. Dimer
    Two adjacent pyimidines bonded together in a DNA strand, usually as a result of exposure to ultraviolet rays.
  33. DNA polymerase
    An enzyme that moves along behind each replication fork, synthesizing new DNA strands complementary to the orginial ones.
  34. End product inhibition
    Feed back inhibition
  35. Enzyme Induction
    A mechanism whereby the genes coding for enzymes needed to metabolize a particular nutrient are activate by the presence of that nutrient.
  36. Enzyme Repression
    Mechanism by which the presence of a particular metabolic represses the gene coding for enzymes used in its synthesis
  37. Exon
    The region of a gene (or mRNA) that codes for a protein in eukaryotic cells.
  38. Exonuclease
    An enzyme that removes segments of DNA
  39. Feedback Inhibition
    REgulation of a metabolic pathway by the concentration of one of its intermediates or, typically, its end-product, which inhibites an enzyme in the pathway
  40. Fluctuation Test
    A test to determine that resistance to chemical substances occurs spontaneously rather than being induced.
  41. Framshift Mutation
    Mutation resulting from the deletion or insertion of one or more bases.
  42. Gene
    A linear sequence of DNA nucleotides that form a functional unit within a chromosome or plasmid
  43. Genetic Code
    The one-on-one relationship between each codon and a specific amino acid
  44. Genetics
    The science of heredity, including the structure and regulation of genes and how these genes are passed between generations
  45. Genotype
    The genetic information cantained in the DNA of an organism
  46. Heredity
    The transmission of genetic tratis from an organism to its progeny
  47. Inducd Mutation
    A mutation produced by agents called mutagens that increase the mutation rate
  48. Inducer
    A substance that binds to and inactivates a repressor protein.
  49. Inducible enzyme
    An enzyme coded for by a gene that is somestimes active an sometimes inactive
Card Set
Chapter 7 Micro (1-49)
Chapter 7 Voc. part 1