AT 250 Exam 1

  1. Anatomical kinesiology
    • Examination of anatomical structures that contribute to producing the diverse movements we
    • are capable of executing

    • Interaction of these various components of the human system which produce efficient and
    • economic movement
  2. Osteolgoy
    study of the skeletal system
  3. Human Skeleton
    Provides a rigid framework

    Protects internal organ

    Protects the framework for muscular torques which produce movement (assists mycology)

    • Functions as a machine coordinating these muscular torques in producing efficient and
    • economic movement

    Produces red blood cells and provides Ca2+ (calcium) and phosphates
  4. Neurology
    Study of the nervous system

    Means of communication

    System providing info back and forth through nerve receptors found in the skin to bone and back

    Provides both sensory and motor facilitation
  5. Mycology
    Study of muscles

    Movement based on the lever system and dynamics of physics in producing movement
  6. Biomechanics
    Mechanical Kinesiology

    Study of human motion from the standpoint of physics

    Examine how forces act on the body
  7. Kinematics
    Appropriate description of movement with respect to time and space

    Disregards the forces that are either produced or result from the movement
  8. Kinetics
    Focuses on the forces that are produced with an action
  9. Linear motion
    When the body moves in a way that all parts travel the same distance, in the sametime, and in the same path
  10. Angular motion
    When the body undergoes a circular motion in which all parts travel through the sameangle, in the same direction, and in the same time frame.
  11. Exercise physiology
    The study of interrelationships among cells, tissue, organs, and systems of thehuman body under the Stress of Exercise
  12. Fitness and Health
    Interaction between exercise, nutrition, and health (physical and mental)·

    • 3 main goals:
    • Study longevity and quality of life for people through exercise, fitness, and mental stimulation
    • Detect disease early and reduce risk factors of disease
    • Prescribe safe and effective programs with both short-term and long-term benefits
  13. Motor Development
    Provides info about changes in human movement behavior across the lifespan and the influencesof these changes on motor performance
  14. 4 critical issues of motor development:
    • Role of nature vs. nurture
    • - How much is genetics and how much is taught
    • Identification of sensitive or critical periods for motor development processes
    • - Susceptible to the influence of particular lesson or event
    • Discontinuity vs. Continuity of development
  15. Motor Learning and Control
    Studies the determining factors that result in learning that is adaptable to changing conditions, resistant to forgetting and efficient in terms of ML/MC Processes
  16. ML/MC Processes
    • Sensation/Perception
    • - Processing of sensory info in such a way as to interpret the sensations
    • Response Selection
    • - Deciding on a course of action based upon the perception
    • Response Execution
    • - The coordinated control of movement that executes the response or demand.
  17. Sports Psychology
    Tries to understand the effect of psychological factors on behavior in sports
  18. Sport Pedagogy
    Involves research on preparing individuals to teach motor skills by studying thestudent, the teacher, and the interaction b/w the student and teacher while thestudent is being prepared to become a teacher
  19. Superior
  20. Inferior
  21. Anterior
    Toward the front of the body
  22. Posterior
    Toward the back of the body
  23. Medial
    Toward the midline of the body
  24. Lateral
    Away from the midline of the body
  25. Proximal
    Closer to the trunk
  26. Distal
    Away from the trunk
  27. Superficial
    Toward the surface of the body
  28. Deep
    Inside the body away from the surface
  29. Abduction
    Goes away from the body
  30. Adduction
    Goes toward the body
  31. Sagittal Plane
    Bisects the body from front and back, dividing it into left and right halves
  32. Frontal Plane
    Bisects the body laterally from side to side, dividing it into front and back halves
  33. Horizontal Plane
    Divides the body into superior and inferior halves
  34. Sagittal Axis
    Runs from front to back and at right angle to frontal plane
  35. Frontal Axis
    Runs from side to side and at a right angle to sagittal plane
  36. Vertical Axis
    Runs straight down through the top of the head and is at a right angle to thehorizontal plane (bring upper arm forward)
  37. Hypothesis


    Deductive Science
    Educated guess

    Going form general to specific

    • Much more effective
    • -We try to see if an overriding theory works in a certain situation
    • -If not, then we apply it to another situation
  38. Validity
    Measures what it’s supposed to
  39. Reliability
    Will it measure over, and over, and over....
  40. Sample
    A subset of a population
  41. Dependent Variable
    Measured Variable

    Dependent on what you manipulate
  42. Independent Variable
    Manipulated Variable
  43. Control Group
    Nothing is being changed
  44. Experimental Group
    Who receive the conditions
  45. Basic Research
    Concerned with the development of hypothesis, laws, and theories pertaining to theprocess
  46. Applied Research
    Research aimed at testing potential solutions to problems that present themselves inreal-world settings
  47. Operations Research
    How can we manage to make ourselves apply it to real world settings
  48. Lever
    Defined as a rigid bar that turns about an axis of rotation or a fulcrum
  49. All levers have 3 components:
    • Force (F)
    • -Which is usually the muscle insertion

    Axis of Rotation (A)

    Resistance (R)
  50. 3 classes of levers
    • 1st class: FAR
    • - Designed basically to produce balanced movements when the axis is midway between the
    • force and the resistance (See-Saw)
    • 2nd class: ARF
    • - Designed to produce force movements
    • 3rd class: AFR
    • - Designed to produce speed and ROM movements
  51. Length of Levers
    Resistance Arm: Distance between the axis and the point of resistance

    Force Arm: Distance between the axis and the point of force
  52. The longer the force arm...
    The less force required to move the lever
  53. Force (F) x Force Arm (FA) = Resistance (R) x Resistance Arm (RA)
    • If the resistance arm = 12 inches, Resistance is 20 pounds, and the Force Arm is 24 inches. How much force do you need to apply to move the resistance?
    • - 24
    • What if the RA = 6 in. and FA = 30 in.?
    • - 4
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AT 250 Exam 1
Exam 1 Flash Cards