Exam 3

  1. Name the chambers of the equine heart.
    left and right atrium and left and right ventricle.
  2. Name the functions of each chamber of the heart.
    atria- collects blood from veins and pumps it into the ventricles.

    ventricle- send blood out into the arteries via aorta
  3. What is the function of the left side of the heart?
    It is larger and supplies blood to the entire horse.
  4. What is the function of the right side of the heart?
    Pumps blood to the lungs.
  5. Where is oxygenated blood found- veins or arteries?
    Found in the arteries.
  6. What is a capillary?
    Very small where o2 and co2 are exchanged in the tissues.
  7. What is the systemic circulation?
    Movement of oxygen rich blood to the body cells and return of un-oxygenated blood to the lungs.
  8. What is the pulmonary circulation?
    Circulates blood through the lungs.
  9. What is the name of the vessels where gasses (oxygen and carbon dioxide) and nutrients are exchanged between blood and tissues?
  10. What are the 3 main types of blood vessels?
    arteries, veins, and capillaries
  11. How do the 3 main types of blood vessels differ?
    arteries: carry blood away from the heart. oxygenated.

    veins: carry blood to the heart and darker in color. not oxygenated.

    capillaries: really small and exchange gasses.
  12. What gasses are transferred in the lungs?
    CO2 can be exchaged for O2
  13. What gasses are transfered in the tissues?
    CO2 can be exchanged for O2
  14. Name the functions of blood.
    Carry nutrients to various body tissues and remove wastes, thermo regulation, immune function, maintaining pH, and transporting hormones.
  15. Name the constituents of blood.
    Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma
  16. How does the circulatory system regulate pH?
    Buffer to maintain pH because it removes CO2.
  17. Where are red blood cells stored?
    The spleen.
  18. What is hemoglobin?
    Carries O2 and CO2. Iron must be present in order to transport.
  19. What is myoglobin?
    an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates
  20. Name as many types of white blood cells as you can, and list their functions.
    Neutrophils- fights acute infection.

    Lymphosites- fight chronic infection by forming anti-bodies.

    Eosinophils- found in high numbers during allergies and bouts of parasitism
  21. What do platelets do?
    Reduce blood loss from injured vessels by adhering to walls and each other.
  22. What are the main components of plasma?
    • 90% water
    • 8% protein, organic, and inorganic matter.
  23. What is the difference between plasma and serum?
    serum is plasma with fibrinogen and other clotting factors removed.
  24. List the functions of the respiratory system.
    Supply O2, remove CO2, pH regulation, temp regulation, water elimination, and noise production.
  25. List the parts of the parts of the respiratory system.
    Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, epiglottis, trachea, bronchi, lungs, bronchioles, and alveoli.
  26. What is the pharynx?
    Passageway for food and air.
  27. What is the larynx?
    Regulates the amount of air that enters the lungs and prevents the inhalation of impurities.
  28. What is the trachea and what is it composed of?
    A long rigid tube that passes between the larynx and the lungs. Made up of a series of cartilaginous rings connected by elastic, fibrous connective tissue.
  29. What are the bronchi and bronchioles?
    Bronchi- Pass into right and left lung, turn into bronchioles.

    Bronchioles- at the end of the bronchi and turn into the alveoli.
  30. What are the alveoli and what are the functions?
    Small air sacks surrounded by capillaries where O2 and CO2 exchange occurs.
  31. What is epistaxis?
    A nose bleed.
  32. What are the causes of epistaxis?
    nasal tumors or fungal infections of upper airways.
  33. What is EIPH (exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage)?
    Called bleeders and caused by intense exercise. Is when they bleed in small vessels of the lungs.
  34. Which sport commonly has bleeders?
  35. Where does the EIPH bleeding originate?
    small vessels of the lungs.
  36. What drug is used to treat EIPH?
    Salix and Lasix
  37. What is roaring? Does the sound occur on inspiration or expiration?
    Paralysis of muscle that abduct the arytenoid cartilages. occurs on inspiration.
  38. Under what conditions will roaring be heard?
    Inhaling at a canter or gallup.
  39. What causes the paralysis of the arytenoid cartilage?
    Damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerves.
  40. What treatments can be done for roaring?
    Tie back procedure.
  41. What is dorsal displacement of the soft palate? Does the sound occur on inspiration or expiration?
    Occurs when the soft palate displaces to a position of the epiglottis. Causes noise at expiration.
  42. What is the difference between ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores?
    ruminant- digest fiber in the rumen

    non-ruminant is a diet made up of fibrous plants and digested in the cecum.
  43. What part of the horse's digestive tract functions like the rumen for cattle?
    the cecum
  44. What is the esophagus made of and what does it do?
    A smooth muscle with weak contractions.
  45. How large is the horse's stomach?
    2-4 gallons.
  46. What feeds are digested and absorbed in the stomach, small intestine, cecum, large colon?
    Stomach and small intestine: proteins, soluble carbs, and fats.

    Cecum and large colon: insoluble carbs and fibrous plants
  47. How does the horse function without a gall bladder?
    The liver constantly secretes bile into the large intestine.
  48. What is the main function of the large colon?
    Water absorption, nutrient absorption and fiber break down.
  49. How does the horse digest cellulose?
    Digested and absorbed in cecum with help of enzymes produced by microbes.
  50. What are insoluble carbohydrates?
    Cellulose and hemicellulose
  51. What are soluble carbohydrates?
    starches and sugars
  52. What is an "essential" amino acid?
    Must be provided in the diet because the horse is unable to produce enough for normal body function.
  53. What amino acids are most important in growing horses?
    Lysine, threonine, methionine.
  54. What is the source of volatile fatty acids?
    Insoluble carbs.
  55. Where is fat digested? Absorbed?
    Both in the small intestine.
  56. Which vitamins are fat soluble? Water soluble?
    Fat soluble: Vitamins A, D, E, and K.

    Water soluble: vitamin B and C.
  57. Which ones are stored in higher amounts? (water or fat soluble)
    fat soluble.
  58. Which ones may be toxic in high doses?
    Fat soluble.
  59. Where are minerals absorbed?
    Small intestine.
  60. What is the source of minerals in the diet?
    In their food.
  61. Name the four most important minerals needed for proper bone growth.
    Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and chloride.
  62. What are trace minerals?
  63. What are concentrates? Roughages?
    Concentrates: Grains and supplements.

    Roughages: grasses and legumes
  64. Which groups of horses have the highest energy needs?
    Broodmares, growing young horses, and many performance horses.
  65. What is a complication of obesity?
    Laminitis, insulin resistance, and trouble breathing.
  66. What are the building blocks of proteins?
    amino acids
  67. How can the protein content of pastures or hay be increased?
    grain supplement
  68. Name a high quality concentrate used for protein supplementation.
    Soybean meal
  69. What are the clinical signs of protein deficiency?
    Decreased growth rate, general unthriftiness, poor muscle tone.
  70. What happens to excess protein if fed to horses?
    Excreted in urine
  71. Explain the nitrogen cycle.
    Nitrogen cycled from feeds to animal to soil back to feed.
  72. What causes big head disease?
    Too much phosphorus.
  73. Are grains high in phosphorus or calcium?
  74. Are legumes high in phosphorus or calcium?
  75. Which is higher in calcium- grasses or legumes?
  76. Do horses recognize they are deficient in minerals? Which ones?
    Yes, only sodium.
  77. Name two problems caused by vitamin A deficiency.
    Night blindness and respiratory infections.
  78. What is carotene?
    Precursor for vitamin A. It is yellow-orange or green.
  79. Where does the horse get B vitamins?
    Diet or manufactured in the cecum by cecal microbes.
  80. Why may processed feed be better for horses?
    Enhance feed digestibility.
  81. How much better are processed feeds?
    Increased fiber digestibility 10-15%
  82. How often should you feed a horse? why? what is natural for the horse?
    • Two times daily.
    • Easier for them to digest smaller meals.
    • Eating all day
  83. What is the function of the urinary system, as a whole?
    Maintaining water and electrolyte balance. collects and excretes waste.
  84. What is the functional unit of the kidney?
  85. What is glomerulus?
    cluster of capillaries
  86. What is a Bowman's capsule?
    a cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine.
  87. What blood components are removed by the kidneys?
    sodium, calcium, potassium, water, ions, and sugars
  88. How much of the filtrate is reabsorbed?
  89. Which hormones regulate kidney function?
    Regulated by ADH and aldosterone.
  90. What is the function of ADH? What does ADH stand for?
    Controls the release of water. Stands for anti-diuretic hormone.
  91. What is the function of aldosterone?
    Conserves sodium and stimulates sodium reabsorption
  92. Why would it be important to conserve water?
    Prevent dehydration
  93. Why would it be important to conserve sodium?
    Because when they sweat they lose salt/sodium. electrolyte balance
Card Set
Exam 3
circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary,