Energy Balance and Weight Management

  1. Energy Balance is?
    • amount of fat stored or used in a day is dependent on energy balance.
    • 1lb. fat = 3500 calories
    • excess energy is stored as fat
    • we eat to refill our body
  2. To achieve energy balance your body does what?
    • Tries to control how much energy comes in by affecting food intake.
    • controls when to stop/start eating
  3. Direct Calorimetry?
    amount of heat released when you burn the food.
  4. Indirect calorimetry?
    measure the amount of oxygen consumed
  5. energy in =
    energy out
  6. Bodies goal is
    achieve energy balance

    children are good at this
  7. Hunger?
    physilogical need for food
  8. appetit?
    • response to seeing or smelling food.
    • full (not hungry) but still eat pie
  9. satiation?
    signal to stop eating
  10. satiety?
    signal of don't start eating again.
  11. Protien does what?
    supresses hunger and inhibits eating the most
  12. Neuropeptide Y?
    • causes carbohydrate cravings
    • decreases energy used
    • initiates eating.
    • increases fat storage
  13. Ghrelin?
    • secreted by stomach cells
    • stimulates appitite,
    • promotes energy storage
  14. Leptin?
    • suppreses appitite,
    • increases energy expetiager
  15. Thermogenesis?
    easy measurement of how your body uses energy.
  16. Leptin production on people?
    only very few people dont produce enough leptin

    average person produces enough and given leptin does nothing for them.
  17. the bod's generation of heat is measured to determine what?
    the amount of energy expended.
  18. Heat is released when?
    • macronutrients used to make ATP
    • rest is lost as heat.
  19. Remember metabolic events capture only about 40% of the energy as what?
    ATP and the rest lost as heat.
  20. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is?
    the rate of energy used for metabolism under specified conditions

    this is what we refer too when talking about ppl havinga fast or slow meabolism.
  21. Basal Metabolism is?
    energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest.
  22. Resting Metabolic rate (RMR) is?
    • less restrictions then BMR
    • criteria for recent food intake and physical activity
  23. Physical Avtivity is?
    voluntary movement of skeletal muscles and support systems.

    most variable and most changeable component of energy expenditure.
  24. 3 things that affect physical activity are?
    • 1. muscle mass
    • 2. body weight
    • 3. activety it's self
  25. What is thermic effect of food?
    • an estimation of the energy required to process food.
    • to digest, absorb, transport, metabolise, and store ingested nutrients
    • approximately 10% of energy intake
  26. Adaptive Theromogenesis
    Adjustments in energy expenditure related to changes in environment and to physiological events.

    bodies ability to adjust to the situation
  27. Body composition is?
    proportions of muscle, bone, fat, and other tissue that make up a persons total body weight.

    Difficult to measure body composition in living humans so we use body weight.
  28. Lean tissue =
    bone, muscle, water
  29. Body weight does not=
    • body fat
    • a sedentary person can be at a healthy weight, but have too much fat.
  30. what is intra-adominal fat?
    fat deposited around organs
  31. Central obesity is?
    upper body fat mainly associated with heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and some cancers.
  32. How do we determine a healthy body composition?
    • by good health
    • BMI is commonly used for this.
  33. Body Mass Index BMI is calculated how?
Card Set
Energy Balance and Weight Management
test 3