unit 2- circulatory system

  1. what does S1 sounds like? What causes S1?
    • Lub
    • closure fo the mitral and tricuspid valves signals the beginning of ventricular systole (contraction)
  2. what does S2 sound like? what causes it?
    • dub
    • closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves signals the beginning of ventricular diastole (relaxation)
  3. what causes and S3 sound? and is i normal? what part of you stethescope is it best heard w/?
    • sound is produced by rapid ventriuclar filling and can be normal finding in children and young adults.
    • bell
  4. what is S4 caused by? is it normal? how is it best heard?
    • produced by a strong atrial contraction and can be normal finding in older and athletic adults and children.
    • bell
  5. what is a murmur? what does it sound like? what part of stethescope do you use? what are the 2 types of murmurs?
    • heard when blood vol. is increased int he heart, or the flow of blood is impeded or altered from normal.
    • blowing or swishing sound
    • bell
    • Systolic- heard after S1
    • Diastolic- head just after S2
  6. what is a thrill? is it normal?
    • palpable vibratons that may be present w/ murmurs or cardiac malformation
    • use your ulnar surface of your hand to feel for vibrations
    • abnormal
  7. what is a bruit?
    produced by obstructed peripheral blood flow and are ehard as a blowing or swishing sound with the bell of the stethescope
  8. Where do you find the aortic site?
    right of the sternum @ 2 ICS
  9. where do you find the pulmonic site?
    left of the sternum @ the 2nd ICS
  10. where do you find the Erb's point?
    left of the sternum @ 3rd ICS
  11. where do you find tricuspid site?
    left of the sternum @ 4th ICS
  12. where is the apical/mitral site?
    left midclavicular line @ 5th ICS
  13. pulse and bp are indicators of?
    cardiovascular status
  14. what is a heave? is it normal or abnormal?
    • visible elevations of the chest wall that are seen with heart failure, and are often located along the left sternal border or at the PMI
    • abnormal
  15. how do you inspect the jugular vein?
    • hob 30-45 degrees
    • assess for right sided heart failure
  16. all pulse sites can be palpated bilaterally to make comparisons except for which pulse site?
  17. name the 7 major pulses and their locations
    • carotid- either side of trachea, medial to stenocleidomastoid muscle
    • radial- radial side of the wrist
    • brachial- antecubitl fossa above the elbow
    • femoral- midway between the symphysis pubis and the anterosuperior illiac spine
    • popliteal- behind the knee
    • dorsalis pedis- top of the foot, along a line w/ the groove between the first toe and the extensor endons of great toe
    • posterior tibial- behind and below the medial malleolus of the ankles
  18. what does a brown pigment of the skin indicate?
    venous insufficiency
  19. what does shingy and thin skin w/o hair on toes and foot indicate?
    arterial insuffiiciency
  20. what is the Homan's sign? if its positive what would your suspicion be?
    • leg is supported and flexed slightly at the knee while the foot is dorsiflexed. A report of pain in calf would be a + homans
    • phlebitis or deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
  21. what are the 3 positions that are best for assessing for heart sounds; normal and abnormal.
    • sitting, leaning forward
    • lying supine
    • turned toward the left side- best position for picking up extra heart sounds or murmurs
  22. whcih of the following should be performed on a client following a total knee replacement to assess the peripheral vascular system of the affected extremity (select all)
    Skin color
    Skin temp
    presence of lesion
    capillary refill
    • Skin color
    • Skin temp
    • capillary refill
    • edema
Card Set
unit 2- circulatory system
circ. syst.