1. What does NAAQS stand for?
    National Ambient Air Quality Standards
  2. What is NAAQS?
    Standards set by the EPA for the first 6 air pollutants (criteria of pollutants)
  3. What are the 6 criteria air pollutants?
    • NOx
    • SOx
    • CO
    • Ozone
    • Particulates
    • Lead
  4. Which of the criteria air pollutants makes the color of smog?
    NO2 or NOx
  5. What is the color of NO2?
  6. More NOx is created in which - hotter or colder temperatures?
  7. What are the sources of NOx?
    • Internal Combustion Engines
    • Power Plants (Electricity)
    • Industries
    • Note: Any combustion process is a source of NOx
  8. What are the effects of NOx on the Environment and Human Health?
    • Respiratory Irritant
    • Increases susceptibility to Upper Respirator Tract Infections
    • Toxic to plants
    • Reduces visibility
    • Contributes to acid rain
  9. Why is NOx a Respiratory Irritant and what does it irritate?
    • NOx + H2O --> Nitric Acid
    • Irritates lungs and bronchii
  10. How does NOx affect plants?
    Makes plants go through mottling (forming brown spots)
  11. How does NOx contribute to acid rain?
    Through the synthesis of Nitric Acid & Photochemical Smog
  12. SOx is an impurity of what?
  13. SOx comes from which? Gasoline or Diesel?
  14. What are the sources of SOx?
    • Oil Refineries
    • Diesel
    • Power Plants
    • Heating Oil
    • Industries
  15. What are the effects of SOx on Environmental and Human Health?
    • Respiratory Irritant
    • Corrosive
    • More toxic to plants than NOx
    • Deteriorates cottony fibers
    • #1 Contributor to Acid Rain
  16. Why is SOx a respiratory irritant?
    SOx + H2O --> H2SO4
  17. H2SO4 or Sulfuric Acid is also known as?
    Battery Acid
  18. What of the criteria air pollutants comes from incomplete burning of C?
    Carbon Monoxide
  19. True or false. Carbon Monoxide has a smell and is blue.
    False. No smell and no color.
  20. In what time of the year are CO levels the highest and why?
    Summer; because Air Conditioning is always turned on
  21. What are the sources of CO?
    Any combustion process of fossil fuels
  22. In what kind of area is CO most prominent?
    Urban Areas (Cities)
  23. What are the effects of CO on Environmental and Human Health?
    • Carboxyhemoglobin
    • Headaches, Irritability
    • SLow reactions, mental impairment
    • Fatal at high doses
  24. What is Carboxyhemoglobin?
    CO binds to Hemoglobin, rendering Hemoglobin unable to deliver O2 through out the body thus organs become Oxygen-deficient
  25. Where must Ozone be located before it can be considered an air pollutant?
    In the Troposphere
  26. Ozone pollution is a product of what?
    Photochemical Smog
  27. How can you detect Ozone?
    It can be smelled.
  28. Where can you easily find Ozone?
    • Electrical Shortages
    • Copy Rooms
    • Welders
  29. How is Photochemical Smog created?
    NOx + H-Cs + light + O2 --> O3
  30. Where do Hydrocarbons (H-Cs) come from?
    • Unburned gasoline
    • Plants
  31. What are the effects of Ozone on Environment and Human Health?
    • Major Respiratory Irritant
    • Eye Irritant
    • Deteriorates cotton & other fibers
    • Extremely toxic to plants
  32. How does Ozone affect lung capacity if over exposed?
    Lung capacity is decreased and is not recoverable
  33. What are particulates?
    Particles in the air (both solids and liquids)
  34. What is the size range of particulates?
    100 micrometers to 0.1 micrometers
  35. What does PM_# (i.e. PM_10) mean?
    A particulate matter at # micrometers
  36. How small must the particulate matter be before we can't see it?
    Anything less than PM_20
  37. What are the natural sources of particulates?
    • Dust
    • Smoke
    • Mist / Fog
  38. What are the artificial sources of particulates?
    • Cigarette Smoke
    • Industrial Fog
    • Fumes - metal aerosol
  39. Give an example of metal aerosol.
    Little piece of molten lead that dries and floats in the air.
  40. What are the body's defenses against Particulates?
    • Nose Hairs
    • Nasal Turbinates aka Spiral Canals
    • Mucociliary Escalator
  41. What range of particulate size can the Nose Hairs protect the lungs from?
    100 - 20 micrometers
  42. What is the purpose of Nasal Turbinates and Spiral Canals?
    To get the air in the canals spinning
  43. What does spinning the air do?
    • Warms the air
    • Moistening of the air
    • Centrifugal force
  44. The Centrifugal Force of spinning air in Nasal Turbinates affects what range of Particulates?
    PM20 to PM10
  45. How does Centrifigual Force affect PM20 to PM10?
    The force drives the particulates against the mucosal (sticky) walls of the Nasal Turbinates causing Impaction of Particles
  46. How does the Mucociliary Escalator work?
    The nasal passages contain millions of cells containing cells that sweep in a wave/rhythmic fashion pushing particles up.
  47. How fast do the Mucociliary Escalator cilia move?
    1000 times a second
  48. What happens to the particles that are pushed up via the Mucociliary Escalator?
    They're swallowed
  49. How does Air Pollution affect the Mucociliary Escalator?
    They slow down the cilia, may even paralyze the cilia
  50. What is the result of the paralysis of Mucociliary Escalator cilia?
    Chronic Cough
  51. Chronic Cough is very common with which group?
  52. What is Pack Year History?
    (# of packs smoked per day)*(years smoking)
  53. What range of particulates are we most concerned about?
    PM0.1 to PM2.5
  54. Why are so concerned about PM0.1 to PM2.5?
    Because they can enter the alveoli
  55. What is our body's last line of defense against PM0.1 to PM2.5?
  56. How are Macrophages summoned?
    Via distress signals from the nodules created in the Alveoli
  57. What do Macrophages do the particulates?
  58. If the Macrophage cannot successfully phagocytize the particulate, what does it do?
    It will leave the lung and commit suicide in the blood stream and the particle is then excreted through urine
  59. What is intentional cell suicide called?
  60. What is Particle Overload?
    The more particles you breathe in, the slower the macrophages work
  61. Why are smokers so much more susceptible to URIs (Upper Respiratory Infections)?
    Because macrophages are so overloaded with particles that they don't work
  62. True or false. Toxins from the cigarette can also kill macrophages.
  63. What is the major source of Lead as a criteria air pollutant?
    • Unleaded Gasoline (previously)
    • Soil
    • Old paint
  64. Where is leaded gasoline still used?
    Mexico City
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