Management 341

  1. Conflict
    any situation in which incompatible goals, attitudes, emotions, or behaviors lead to disagreement or opposition for two or more parties
  2. Functional Conflict
    a healthy, constructive disagreement between two or more people
  3. Dysfunctional Conflict
    an unhealthy, destructive disagreement between two or more people
  4. Positive Consequences of Conflict
    • Leads to new ideas
    • Stimulates creativity
    • Motivates change
    • Promotes organizational vitality
    • Helps individuals and groups establish identities
    • Serves as a safety volve to indicate problems
  5. Negative Consequences of Conflict
    • Diverts energy from work
    • Threatens psychological well-being
    • Wastes resources
    • Creates a negative climate
    • Breaks down group cohesion
    • Can increase hostility and aggressive behaviors
  6. Diagnosing Conflict
    • Approaching from hostile standpoint?
    • Negative outcome?
    • Potential losses exceed gains?
    • Energy diverted from goals?

    Yes = Dysfunctional
  7. Structural Causes of Conflict
    • Specialization
    • Interdependence
    • Common resources
    • Goal differences
    • Authority relationships
    • Status inconsistencies
    • Jurisdictional ambiguities
  8. Personal Causes of Conflict
    • Skills & abilities
    • Personalities
    • Perceptions
    • Values and ethics
    • Emotions
    • Communication barriers
    • Cultural differences
  9. Jurisdictional Ambiguity
    the presence of unclear lines of responsibility within an organization.
  10. Globalization & Conflict
    • Individualism/Collectiveism
    • Long-term/Short-term Value Orientation
    • Masculinity/Femininity
    • High/Low Power Distance
    • Uncertainty/Avoidance
  11. Forms of Conflict in Organizations
    • Interorganizational- between 2 or more organizations
    • Intergroup- between 2 or more groups or teams
    • Intragroup- within one group or team
    • Interpersonal- between 2 or more individuals
    • Intrapersonal- within an individual
  12. Forms of Intrapersonal Conflict
    • Interrole Conflict – a person’s experience of conflict among the multiple roles in his/her life
    • Intrarole Conflict – conflict that occurs within a single role, such as when a person receives conflicting messages from role senders about how to perform a certain role
    • Person-role Conflict – conflict that occurs when an individual is expected to perform behaviors in a certain role that conflict with his/her personal values
  13. Power Relationships
    • Equal vs. Equal- Suboptimization
    • High vs. Low- Control vs. Autonomy
    • High vs. Middle vs. Low- Role conflict, role ambiguity, stress
  14. Aggressive Defense Mechanisms
    • Fixation– an individual keeps up a dysfunctional behavior that obviously will not solve the conflict
    • Displacement– an individual directs his or her anger toward someone who is not the source of the conflict
    • Negativism– a person responds with pessimism to any attempt at solving a problem
  15. Compromise Defense Mechanisms
    • Compensation– an individual attempts to make up for a negative situation by devoting himself or herself to another pursuit with increased vigor
    • Identification– an individual patterns his or her behavior after another’s
    • Rationalization– a compromise mechanism characterized by trying to justify one’s behavior by constructing bogus reasons for it
  16. Withdrawal Defense Mechanisms
    • Flight/Withdrawal– entails physically escaping a conflict (flight) or psychologically escaping (withdrawal)
    • Conversion– emotional conflicts are expressed in physical symptoms
    • Fantasy– provides an escape from a conflict through daydreaming
  17. Ineffective Techniques for Dealing with Conflict
    • Nonaction
    • Secrecy
    • Admin. Orbiting
    • Due Process Nonaction
    • Character Assassination
  18. Effective Techniques for Dealing with Conflict
    • Superordinate Goals
    • Expanding Resources
    • Changing Personnel
    • Changing Structure
    • Confronting and Negotiating
  19. Negotiation
    • A joint process of finding a mutually acceptable solution to a complex conflict
    • Two or more people involved
    • Conflict of interest exists
    • Willing to negotiate for a better outcome
    • Parties prefer to work together
  20. Approaches to Negotiation
    • Distributive Bargaining – the goals of the parties are in conflict, and each party seeks to maximize its resources
    • Integrative Negotiation – focuses on the merits of the issues and seeks a win-win solution
  21. Conflict Management Styles
    • Avoiding– deliberate decision to take no action on a conflict or to stay out of a conflict
    • Accommodating– concern that the other party’s goals be met but relatively unconcerned with getting own way
    • Competing– satisfying own interests at other party’s expense
    • Compromising– each party gives up something to reach a solution
    • Collaborating– arriving at a solution satisfactory to all through open and thorough discussion
  22. Creating a Conflict-Positive Organization
    • Value diversity and confront differences
    • Seek mutual benefits, and unite behind cooperative goals
    • Empower employees to feel confident and skillful
    • Take stock to reward success and learn from mistakes
  23. Three Organizational Views of Conflict
    • Competitive conflict- Belittle differences, Seek win-lose situation, Blame, Suspect
    • Avoidance of conflict- Evade differences, Reduce risks, Withdraw, Despair
    • Positive conflict- Value diversity, Seek mutual benefit, Empower, Take stock
  24. Conflict Management Tools
    • Ability to reduce organizational toxins
    • High emotional intelligence
    • Negotiation skills
  25. Job
    a set of specified work and task activities that engage an individual in an organization
  26. Work
    mental or physical activity that has productive results
  27. Meaning of Work
    the way a person interprets and understands the value of work as part of life
  28. Six Patterns Used to Define Work
    • A. Value comes from performance. Accountability is important
    • B. Provides positive personal affect and identity
    • C. Profit accrues to others by work performance – strenuous, compulsive
    • D. Physical activity directed by others and performed in a workplace
    • E. Generally unpleasant – physically and mentally strenuous activity
    • F. Activity constrained to specific time periods; no positive affect through its performance
  29. Jobs in Organizations
    • —Building blocks of task-authority structure
    • Complement and support other jobs
    • Interdependent
    • Contribute to the mission and goals
  30. Traditional Approaches to Job Design
    • Scientific management
    • Job enlargement/ Job rotation
    • Job enrichment
    • Job characteristics theory
  31. Scientific
    • Emphasizes work simplification –standardization and the narrow, explicit specification of task activities for workers
    • Pros- Allows diverse groups to work together, Leads to production efficiency and higher profits
    • Cons- Undervalues the human capacity for thought and ingenuity
  32. Job Enlargement
    a method of job design that increases the number of activities in a job to overcome the boredom of overspecialized work
  33. Job Rotation
    a variation of job enlargement in which workers are exposed to a variety of specialized jobs over time
  34. Cross-Training
    a variation of job enlargement in which workers are trained in different specialized tasks or activities
  35. Job Enrichment
    • Designing or redesigning jobs by incorporating motivational factors into them
    • Emphasis is on recognition, responsibility, and advancement opportunity
  36. Job Characteristics Model
    A framework for understanding person-job fit through the interaction of core job dimensions with critical psychological states within a person
  37. Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS)
    The survey instrument designed to measure the elements in the Job Characteristics Model
  38. Five Core Job Characteristics
    • Skill Variety
    • Task Identity
    • Task Significance
    • Autonomy
    • Feedback
  39. Growth-need Strength
    • Desire to grow and fully develop one’s abilities
    • The higher the growth-need strength, the more favorable response to jobs with high MPSs
    • Core job dimensions stimulate psychological states
    • -Experienced meaningfulness of the work (degree to which employee experiences the job as worthwhile)
    • -Experienced responsibility for work outcomes (degree to which employee feels personally accountable)
    • -Knowledge of results (degree to which employee understands his/her effectiveness on the job)
  40. Engagement
    • The expression of oneself as one performs in work or other roles
    • Full engagement requires the strategic management of one’s energy in response to the environment
    • Design of work is as important as human spirit’s response to job characteristics and work design features
  41. Social Information Processing (SIP) model
    • A model that suggests that the important job factors depend in part on what others tell a person about the job
    • Four premises
    • 1.People provide cues to understanding the work environment
    • 2.People help us judge our jobs
    • 3.People tell us how they see our jobs
    • 4.People’s positive and negative feedback help us understand our feelings about our jobs
  42. Interdisciplinary Approach
    • Mechanistic
    • Biological
    • Motivational
    • Perceptual-Motor
    • Ergonomics – the science of adapting work and working conditions to the employee or worker
  43. Mechanistic Approach
    • Decreased training time
    • Higher utilization levels
    • Lower error likelihood
    • Less mental overload
    • Lower stress levels

    • Lower job satisfaction
    • Lower motivation
    • Higher absenteeism
  44. Motivational Approach
    • Higher job satisfaction
    • Higher motivation
    • Greater job involvement
    • Higher job performance
    • Lower absenteeism

    • Increased training time
    • Lower personnel utilization
    • Greater chance of errors
    • Greater chance of mental overload and stress
  45. Biological Approach
    • Less physical effort
    • Less physical fatigue
    • Fewer health complaints
    • Fewer medical incidents
    • Lower absenteeism
    • Higher job satisfaction

    Higher financial costs because of changes in equipment or job environment
  46. Perceptual Motor Approach
    • Lower error likelihood
    • Lower accident likelihood
    • Less mental stress
    • Decreased training time
    • Higher utilization levels

    • Lower job satisfaction
    • Lower motivation
  47. The Japanese Approach
    • Emphasizes strategic level
    • —Encourages collective and cooperative working arrangements
    • —Emphasizes lean production
    • Using committed employees with ever-expanding responsibilities to achieve zero waste, 100% good product, delivered on time, every time
  48. The German Approach
    • Previously, —Technocentric – placing technology and engineering at the center of job design decisions
    • Recently, —Anthropocentric – placing human considerations at the center of job design decisions
  49. The Scandinavian Approach
    • —Encourages high degrees of worker control
    • Encourages good social support systems for workers
  50. What can you do to increase control in work organizations
    • Give workers the opportunity to control aspects of work and workplace
    • —Design machines and tasks with optimal response times and/or ranges
    • —Implement performance-monitoring systems as source of worker feedback
  51. What can you do to reduce uncertainty
    • Provide employees with timely and complete work information needed
    • Make clear and unambiguous work assignments
    • —Improve communication at shift change time
    • —Increase employee access to information sources
  52. What can you do to manage conflict
    • Use participative decision making to reduce conflict
    • Use supportive supervisory styles to resolve conflict
    • —Provide sufficient resources to meet work demands, thus preventing conflict
  53. Telecommuting
    employees work at home or in other locations geographically separate from their company’s main location
  54. Alternative work patterns
    • —Job Sharing – an alternative work pattern in which there is more than one person occupying a single job
    • Four day work week
    • Flextime – an alternative work pattern that enables employees to set their own daily work schedules
  55. Technology at Work
    • Virtual Office – a mobile platform of computer, telecommunication, and information technology and services
    • Technostress – the stress caused by new and advancing technologies in the workplace
    • —Task Revision – the modification of incorrectly specified roles or jobs
    • —Skill development
  56. Electronic Monitoring of Work
    • Workers should participate in the system’s introduction
    • —Performance standards should be accepted as fair
    • Use performance records to improve, not punish, the performer
  57. Counter-Role Behavior
    deviant behavior in either a correctly or incorrectly defined job or role
  58. Organizational design
    the process of constructing and adjusting an organization’s structure to achieve its goals.
  59. Organizational structure
    the linking of departments and jobs within an organization
  60. Contextual variables
    a set of characteristics that influence the organization’s design processes
  61. Differentiation
    the process of deciding how to divide the work in an organization
  62. Four Dimensions of Differentiation
    • Manager’s goal orientation
    • Time orientation
    • Interpersonal orientation
    • Formality of structure
  63. Horizontal Differentiation
    • The degree of differentiation between organizational subunits
    • —Based on employee’s specialized knowledge, education, or training
  64. Vertical Differentiation
    • The difference in authority and responsibility in the organizational hierarchy
    • Greater in tall, narrow organizations than in flat, wide organizations
  65. Spatial Differentiation
    • Geographic dispersion of an organization’s offices, plants, and personnel
    • Complicates organizational design, but may simplify goal achievement or protection
  66. Differentiation and Complexity in an Organization
    The Greater the Differentiation the Greater the need for structural Width, Height, Breadth

    • The more structurally differentiated an organization is, the more complex it is
    • Complexity refers to the number of activities, subunits, or subsystems within an organization
  67. Integration
    • The process of coordinating the different parts of an organization
    • Designed to achieve unity among individuals and groups
    • Supports a state of dynamic equilibrium; the elements of organization are interrelated and balanced
  68. Vertical Integration
    • —Hierarchical referral
    • —Rules and procedures
    • —Plans and schedules
    • —Positions added to the organization structure
    • Management information systems
  69. Horizontal Integration
    • —Liaison roles
    • —Task forces
    • —Integrator positions
    • —Teams
  70. Basic Design Dimensions
    • Formalization – the degree to which the organization has official rules, regulations and procedures
    • Centralization – the degree to which decisions are made at the top of the organization
    • Hierarchy of Authority – the degree of vertical differentiation across levels of management
    • Specialization – the degree to which jobs are narrowly defined and depend on unique expertise
    • Complexity – the degree to which many different types of activities occur in the organization
    • Standardization – the degree to which work activities are accomplished in a routine fashion
  71. Structural Configurations Of Organization
    • Simple Structure – a centralized form of organization that emphasizes the upper echelon and direct supervision
    • Machine Bureaucracy – a moderately decentralized form of organization that emphasizes the technical staff and standardization of work processes
    • Professional Bureaucracy – a decentralized form of organization that emphasizes the operating level and standardization of skills
    • Divisional Form – a moderately decentralized form of organization that emphasizes the middle level and standardization of outputs
    • Adhocracy – a selectively decentralized form of organization that emphasizes the support staff and mutual adjustment among people
  72. Mintzberg’s Five Basic Parts of an Organization
    • Strategic Apex
    • Techno-Structure
    • Support Staff
    • Middle Line
    • Operating Core
  73. Contextual Variables
    • A set of characteristics that influences the organization’s design processes
    • Technology
    • Strategy & Goals
    • Environment
    • Size
  74. Technology
    the tools, techniques, and actions used by an organization to transform inputs to outputs
  75. Technological Interdependence
    the degree of interrelatedness of the organization’s various technological elements
  76. 3 Types of Technology
    • Unit- Small batch, Made to order (complex)
    • Mass- Large batch (more complex)
    • Process- Continuing production (most complex)

    The more complex the organization’s technology, the more complex the administrative component or structure of the organization needs to be
  77. Environment
    • Environment – anything outside the boundaries of an organization
    • Task Environment – the elements of an organization’s environment that are related to its goal attainment
    • Environmental Uncertainty – the amount and rate of change in the organization’s environment
  78. Extremes of Environmental Uncertainty
    • Mechanistic Structure – an organizational design that emphasizes structured activities, specialized tasks, and centralized decision making
    • Organic Structure – an organizational design that emphasizes teamwork, open communication, and decentralized decision making
  79. Miller’s Integrative Framework of Structural & Strategic Dimensions
    • Strategic Dimension
    • Innovation – to understand and manage new processes and technologies
    • Market differentiation – to specialize in customer formalization
    • Cost control – to produce standardized products
    • efficiently
  80. Organizational Life Cycles
    • The differing stages of an organizations life from birth to death
    • Birth
    • Growth
    • Maturity
    • Decline
    • Revival??
  81. The Relationship among Key Organizational Design Elements
    • Context of the organization
    • -Correct size
    • -Current technology
    • -Perceived environment
    • -Current strategy and goals
    • Influences how manager perceives structural needs
    • Structural dimensions
    • -Level of formalization
    • -Level of centralization
    • -Level of specialization
    • -Level of standardization
    • -Level of complexity
    • -Hierarchy of authority
    • Which characterize the organizational processes
    • Differentiation and Integration
    • Which influence how well the structure meets its
    • Purposes
    • -Designate formal lines of authority
    • -Designate formal information-processing patterns
    • Which influence how well the structure fits the
    • Context of the organization
  82. Forces Reshaping Organizations
    • —Globalization
    • Changes in Information-Processing Technologies
    • Demands on Organizational Processes
    • —Emerging Organizational Structures
  83. Roles of Managers Today
    • 1.Strictly adhering to boss-employee relationships
    • 2.Getting things done by giving orders
    • 3.Carrying messages up and down the hierarchy
    • 4.Performing a set of tasks according to a job description
    • 5.Having a narrow functional focus
    • 6.Going through channels, one by one by one
    • 7.Controlling subordinates
  84. Roles of Future Managers
    • 1.Having hierarchical relationships
    • subordinated to functional and peer relationships
    • 2.Getting things done by negotiating
    • 3.Solving problems and making decisions
    • 4.Creating the job through entrepreneurial projects
    • 5.Having a broad cross-functional collaboration
    • 6.Emphasizing speed and flexibility
    • 7.Coaching one’s workers
  85. HD’s Circle Organization
    • Create Demand
    • Produce Product
    • Provide Support

    Leadership and Strategy Council (in the middle)
  86. Caution: Weakness in Structure-Four Symptoms of Structural Weakness
    • 1. Delay in decision making- Overloaded hierarchy; information funneling limited to too few channels
    • 2. Poor quality decision making- Right information not reaching right people in right format
    • 3. Lack of innovative response to changing environment- No coordinating effort
    • 4. High level of conflict- Departments work against each other, not for organizational goals
  87. Caution: Dysfunctional Personality/ Organization Combinations
    • Schizoid
    • Paranoid
    • Depressive
    • Dramatic
    • Compulsive
  88. Organizational (Corporate) Culture
    a pattern of basic assumptions that are considered valid and that are taught to new members as the way to perceive, think, and feel in the organization
  89. Levels of Organizational Culture
    • Artifacts- Personal enactment, Ceremonies and rites, Stories, Ritual, Symbols
    • Values- Testable in the physical environment, Testable only by social consensus
    • Assumptions- Relationship to environment- Nature of reality, time, and space, Nature of human nature, Nature of human activity, Nature of human relationships
  90. Cultural Artifacts
    • Artifacts – symbols of culture in the physical and social work environment
    • —Most visible aspects of culture
    • —Must be able to determine what they mean
    • Personal enactment
    • Ceremonies and rites
    • Stories
    • Rituals
    • Symbols
    • Used to reinforce values
  91. Organizational Values
    • Values- Espoused: what members of an organization say they value, Enacted: reflected in the way individuals actually behave
    • Values and how they are promoted and publicized affect how workers feel about their jobs and themselves
  92. Organizational Assumptions
    • Assumptions – deeply held beliefs that guide behavior and tell members of an organization how to perceive and think about things
    • —Deepest and most fundamental level of an organization’s culture
    • Unthinkable to violate
    • Often unconscious
    • —Often not discussed or changed
  93. Functions of Organizational Culture
    • Culture provides a sense of identity to members and increases their commitment to the organization
    • Culture is a sense-making device for organization members
    • Culture reinforces the values in the organization
    • Culture serves as a control mechanism for shaping behavior
  94. Strong Culture Perspective
    • an organizational culture with a consensus on the values that drive the company and with an intensity that is recognizable even to outsiders
    • Strong cultures facilitate performance because
    • They are characterized by goal alignment
    • They create a high level of motivation because of shared values by the members
    • They provide control without the oppressive effects of bureaucracy
  95. Fit Perspective
    • Argument that a culture is good only if it fits the industry’s or the firm’s strategy
    • Organizational characteristics that may affect culture
    • Customer requirements
    • Competitive environment
    • Societal expectations

    • Useful to explain short term but not long term performance
    • Indicates the difficulty of changing culture quickly but doesn’t explain how firms can adapt to environmental change
  96. Adaptive Perspective
    • An organizational culture that encourages confidence and risk taking among employees, has leadership that produces change, and focuses on the changing needs of customers
    • Core Values
    • Adaptive- Most managers care about customers, stockholders, and employees
    • Nonadaptive- Most managers care about themselves, their work group, or an associated product
    • Common Behaviors
    • Adaptive- Managers pay close attention to all their constituencies, especially customers
    • Nonadaptive- Managers tend to behave somewhat insularly, politically, and bureaucratically
  97. Five Most Important Elements in Managing Culture
    • What leaders pay attention to
    • How leaders react to crises
    • How leaders behave
    • How leaders allocate rewards
    • How leaders hire and fire individuals
  98. Organizational socialization –
    The process by which newcomers are transformed from outsiders to participating, effective members of the organization
  99. The Three Stages of Socialization
    • 1.Anticipatory Socialization – encompasses all of the learning that takes place prior to the newcomer’s first day on the job
    • 2.Encounter – the newcomer learns the tasks associated with the job, clarifies roles, and establishes new relationships at work
    • 3.Change and Acquisition – the newcomer begins to master the demands of the job
  100. Socialization as Cultural Communication
    • Core values are transmitted to new organization members through
    • The role models they interact with
    • —The training they receive
    • —The behavior they observe being rewarded and punished
  101. Assessing Organizational Culture
    • —Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI) focuses on behaviors that help employees fit into the organization and meet coworker expectations
    • Kilman-Saxton Culture-Gap Survey focuses on the expectations of others in the organization
    • Triangulation – the use of multiple methods to measure organizational culture
  102. Situations That May Require Cultural Changes
    • Merger or acquisition
    • Employment of people from different countries
  103. Reasons That Change Is Difficult
    • —Assumptions are often unconscious
    • —Culture is deeply ingrained and behavioral norms and rewards are well learned
  104. Cultural Modifications in the Current Business Environment
    • Support for a global view of business
    • Reinforcement of ethical behavior
    • Empowerment of employees to excel in product and service quality
  105. Developing a Global Organizational Culture
    • —Create a clear and simple mission statement
    • —Create systems that ensure effective information flow
    • Create “matrix minds”among managers
    • —Develop global career paths
    • Use cultural differences as a major asset
    • Implement worldwide management education and team development programs
  106. Developing an Ethical Organizational Culture
    • —Promote ethical norms
    • —Managers serve as ethical role models
    • Managers communicate that unethical behavior will not be tolerated
    • —Use of storytelling
    • —Trust, trust, trust
  107. Empowerment of Employees to Excel in Product and Service Quality
    • Empowerment unleashes employees’ creativity
    • —Empowerment requires eliminating traditional hierarchical notions of power
    • -Involve employees in decision making
    • -Remove obstacles to their performance
    • -Communicate the value of product and service quality
  108. Career/Career Management
    • Career – the pattern of work-related experiences that span the course of a person’s life
    • Career Management – a lifelong process of learning about self, jobs, and organizations; setting personal career goals; developing strategies for achieving the goals, and revising the goals based on work and life experiences
  109. Career: Paradigm Shift
    • New Career Paradigm- Discrete Exchange, Occupational Excellence, Organizational Empowerment, Project Allegiance
    • Old Career Paradigm- Mutual Loyalty Contract, One-Employer Focus, Top-Down Firm, Corporate Allegiance
  110. Advancing Careers by Changing Jobs
    • Typically, college graduates change jobs four times in first 10 years
    • Know why you are changing jobs- Cost, Benefits
    • Present job hopping as a growth process
  111. Characteristics of successful career developers
    • —Adept at more than one job; multiple skills
    • —Ability to deal with and be energized by change
    • —Self reliance
    • Comfortable giving and receiving support
    • Flexibility
    • Team-oriented
    • Tolerant of ambiguity
    • —Ethical
    • —Life-long learner
  112. Why New Managers Fail
    • —They fail to build good relationships with peers and subordinates
    • They are uncertain or confused about what their bosses expect
    • —They lack internal political skills
    • —They are unable to achieve the two or three most important objectives of the new job
  113. Emotional Intelligence Qualities that Mark a Star Performer
    • —Self-awareness
    • —Self-control
    • —Trustworthiness
    • Confidence
    • —Empathy
  114. Realistic Job Preview
    • Both positive and negative information given to potential employees about the job they are applying for, thereby giving them a realistic picture of the job
    • RJP’s help promote the image of the organization as operating consistently and honestly
    • RJP’s result in; More effective matches, Lower turnover, Higher organizational commitment, Job satisfaction
  115. Career Stages
    • Withdrawal – individual contemplates retirement or possible career changes
    • Maintenance – individual tries to maintain productivity while evaluating progress toward career goals
    • Advancement – person focuses on increasing competence
    • Establishment – the person learns the job and begins to fit into the organization and occupation
  116. Establishment
    • Tasks of the newcomer
    • —Negotiate an effective psychological contract– an implicit agreement between an individual and an organization that specifies what each is expected to give and receive in the relationship
    • Manage the stress of socialization
    • —Make the transition from organizational outsider to organizational insider
  117. Easing the Newcomer’s Transition
    • Newcomers
    • Ask about the job’s negative side
    • —Accurately describe own weaknesses
    • Prepare for reality shock
    • Plan ways to cope with job stress
    • —Seek support from others
    • Set realistic goals
    • —Take credit for successes
    • Be proactive
    • Organizations
    • Prepare careful recruitment and selection processes
    • —Plan early job assignments that lead to success
    • Provide encouragement and feedback
    • Tie rewards to performance
    • —Provide daily, consistent feedback
    • Provide supervisory support
  118. Advancement
    • Striving for achievement
    • Career Path – a sequence of job experiences that an employee moves along during his or her career
    • Career Ladder – a structured series of job positions through which an individual progresses in an organization
  119. Mentoring
    • Mentor – an individual who provides guidance, coaching, counseling, and friendship to a protégé
    • Career functions provided by a mentor
    • Sponsorship
    • Facilitating exposure and visibility
    • —Coaching
    • Protection
    • —Psycho-social functions
  120. Characteristics of good mentoring relationships
    • —Regular contact
    • Consistency with corporate culture and goals
    • —Training in managing the relationship
    • —Accountability
    • Prestige for mentor
  121. Phases of Mentoring
    • Initiation- relationship begins
    • Cultivation- relationship gains meaning
    • Separation- protégé asserts independence
    • Redefinition- relationship has new identity
  122. Dual-Career Partnership
    • a relationship in which both people have important career roles
    • Pressures of such partnerships
    • Time pressure
    • Jealousy
    • Precedence (which career)
  123. Work-home conflicts
    • Work-home conflicts more likely affect women
    • Organizations’ attempts to help
    • -Flexible Work Schedule– a work schedule that allows employees discretion in order to accommodate personal concerns
    • -Child care
    • -Eldercare – assistance in caring for elderly parents and/or other elderly relatives
  124. Maintenance
    • Time of crisis or contentment
    • Midlife crisis
    • Slowed or stalled career growth
    • Burnout
    • —Contentment
    • Sense of achievement
    • No need to strive for continued upward mobility
  125. Career Plateau
    • —a point in an individual’s career in which the probability of moving further up the hierarchy is low
    • Firms respond with
    • Lateral moves
    • Project teams
    • Affirmation
  126. Sustaining Performance
    • Sharing the knowledge through mentoring
    • Successful formal mentoring programs require:
    • 1.Voluntary participation
    • 2.Support from top executives
    • 3.Training for the mentors
    • 4.Graceful exit opportunities
  127. Withdrawal – The Older Worker
    • Retirement Decision Factors
    • Company policy
    • —Financial considerations
    • —Family support or pressure
    • —Health
    • —Opportunities for other productive activities
  128. Withdrawal – Retirement
    • Phased retirement - an arrangement that allows employees to reduce their hours and/or responsibilities in order to ease into retirement
    • Bridge employment - employment that takes place after a person retires from a full-time position but before the person’s permanent withdrawal from the workforce
  129. Career Anchors
    • A network of self-perceived talents, motives, and values that guide an individual’s career decisions
    • Technical and functional competence
    • Autonomy and independence
    • Security & stability
    • Creativity
    • Managerial competence
  130. Organizational Change
    • Planned Change – change resulting from a deliberate decision to alter the organization
    • Unplanned Change – change that is imposed on the organization and is often unforeseen
  131. External Forces for Change
    • Globalization
    • Workforce Diversity
    • Technological Change
    • Ethical Behavior
  132. Globalization
    • Organizations must rethink the most efficient ways to
    • Use resources
    • Disseminate/gather information
    • Develop people

    • Structural Change
    • Mental Change
  133. Ethical Behavior
    • Other Organizations
    • Customers
    • Society
    • Environment
  134. Internal Forces for Change
    • Declining Effectiveness
    • Company Crisis
    • Changing Employee Expectations
    • Changing Work Climate
  135. Scope of Change
    • Incremental Change – change of a relatively small scope, such as making small improvements
    • Strategic Change – change of a larger scale, such as organizational restructuring
    • Transformational Change – change in which the organization moves to a radically different, and sometimes unknown, future state
  136. Change Agent
    • the individual or group who undertakes the task of introducing and managing a change in an organization
    • Effective change leaders build relationships
    • -Within the leadership team
    • —-Between the team and organizational members
    • —-Between the team and key environmental players
  137. Internal Change Agents
    • Advantages
    • Know past history, political system, and culture
    • Must live with results of change so will move carefully
    • Disadvantages
    • May be associated with factions, accused of favoritism
    • May be too close to the situation to be objective
  138. External Change Agents
    • Advantages
    • Outsider’s objective view
    • Impartiality
    • Disadvantages
    • Limited knowledge of organization’s history
    • May be viewed with suspicion
  139. External Change Agents
    • To succeed, externals must
    • Be perceived as trustworthy
    • —Be experts with proven track records
    • —Be similar to those they are working with
  140. Resistance to Change
    • Fear of the unknown
    • Fear of loss
    • —Fear of failure
    • —Disruption of interpersonal relationships
    • Personality conflicts
    • —Politics
    • Cultural assumptions and values
  141. Managing Resistance to Change
    • Communication- Details, Rationale
    • —Participation in the process- Ownership, Commitment
    • Empathy and support
  142. Reactions to Change & Managerial Interventions
    • Disengagement – psychological withdrawal from change
    • Disidentification – feeling that one’s identity is being threatened by change
    • Disenchantment –feeling negativity or anger toward a change
    • Disorientation – feelings of loss and confusion due to change
  143. Force Field Analysis of Decision to Engage in Exercise
    • Forces for change
    • Weight gain
    • Minimally passing treadmill test
    • Feel lethargic; having no energy
    • Family history of cardiovascular disease
    • New, physically demanding job
    • Forces for status quo
    • Lack of time
    • No exercise facility at work
    • Spouse/partner hates to exercise
    • No interest in physical activity or sports
    • Made a grade of D in physical education class
  144. Lewin’s Three Step Change Model
    • 1. Unfreezing – involves encouraging individuals to discard old behaviors by shaking up the equilibrium state that maintains the status quo
    • 2. Moving – new attitudes, values, and behaviors are substituted for old ones
    • 3. Refreezing – involves the establishment of new attitudes, values, and behaviors as the new status quo
  145. Applying Lewin’s Model to the Organization
    • Unfreezing: the organization eliminates rewards for current behavior
    • —Moving: the organization initiates new options and explains their rationale
    • —Refreezing: organizational culture & formal reward systems encourage the new behaviors
  146. Organizational Development (OD)
    Asystematic approach to organizational improvement that applies behavioral science theory and research in order to increase individual and organizational well-being and effectiveness
  147. Organization Development Cycle
    • Diagnosis and needs analysis
    • Intervention
    • Follow-up
  148. OD Intervention Methods- Organizational/Group Techniques
    • SurveyFeedback – a widely used method of intervention whereby employee attitudes are solicited by questionnaire
    • Management by Objective – an organization-wide intervention technique of joint goal setting between employees and managers. Set initial objectives, Periodic progress reviews, Problem solving to remove obstacles to goal
    • Quality Program – a program that embeds product and service quality excellence into the organizational culture. Raise aspirations about product/service quality, Embed product/service quality excellence in the organizational culture
    • Team Building – an intervention designed to improve the effectiveness of a work group. Seek feedback, Discuss errors, Reflect on successes and failures, Experiment with new ways of performing, Climate of psychological safety
    • Process Consultation – an OD method that helps managers and employers improve the processes that are used in organizations
  149. OD Intervention Methods- Individual-Focused Techniques
    • Skills Training – increasing the job knowledge, skills, and abilities that are necessary to do a job effectively. In formal classroom settings, On the job (continual updating)
    • Leadership training and development – a variety of techniques that are designed to enhance individual’s leadership skills. Action learning, Simulation, Business games, Role-playing, Case studies
    • Executive coaching – managers or executives are paired with a coach in a partnership to help the executive perform more efficiently. Verbal information, Intellectual skills, Attitudes, Development
    • Role Negotiation – a technique whereby individuals meet and clarify their psychological contract. Outcomes; Better understanding of what each can be expected to give and receive, Less ambiguity
    • Job Redesign – an OD intervention method that alters jobs to improve the fit between individual skills and the demands of the job. Realign task demands and individual capabilities, Redesign jobs to fit new techniques or organization structures
    • Health Promotion Programs
    • Career Planning
  150. Ethical Considerations in Organizational Development
    • —Selection of the OD method
    • —Voluntary participation
    • —Confidentiality
    • —Potential for manipulation by the change agent
Card Set
Management 341
Chapters 13-18