Keyboard Concerto for Keyboard and Strings
- J.C. Bach
- •The movement is framed by
- •The first ritornello presents the principal themes in the tonic key.
- •The three episodes function as exposition, development, and recapitulation.
- •The soloist traditionally improvises a cadenza in the first movement just before the final orchestral ritornello.
- Sighing figure (later Mozart adopts this)
Piano Concerto in A, K. 488 - first movement
- •Solo sections equal the exposition, development, and recapitulation of a sonata form.
- •Ritornellos return to mark the end of the first and third solo section.
- •The orchestra also punctuates the long solo sections.
- •The orchestral transition material serves as a strong contrast to the lyric themes.
- A significant new idea is introduced at the beginning of the development
- m. 31 sighing figure, pervasive
- m. 35 and 36, downbeats
- pg. 190 - greatly expanded orchestra, but NO OBOES
Piano Sonata in F major, K. 332/I
- •Mozart’s themes tend to be songlike, as seen in the opening theme.
- •Typically, a contrasting idea is introduced gracefully within the first theme.
- •Mozart effortlessly employs galant,learned, hunting, and Sturm und Drang styles within the first thirty measures.
- •These varied styles and gestures, often called topoi (or “topics”) would be easily recognized by listeners and performers of Mozart’s time.
- •The development begins with a new melody.
- Notes ON MUSIC, pg. 182
String Quartet in G major, K. 387/IV
- •This movement alternates between the learned and galant styles.
- •The opening fugue subject in four whole notes references music of the past, and was used again by Mozart in other works.
- •A new fugue eposition begins in m. 51 on a contrasting fugue subject of dotted rhythms.
- •Later on the fugue subject from the opening returns in the cello against the subject of the second fugue in the
- second violin.
- •Such a work is often called a “double fugue.”
Symphony No. 41 in C major (Jupiter), K. 551 - Finale
- •Combines sonata form with learned counterpoint and fugue
- •The opening theme presents two ideas: elegant singing idea and a more active response.
- •The first idea is treated in all four species of strict counterpoint, while the second is presented in a
- homophonic texture.
- •Other motives are interwoven in imitative counterpoint.
- •The coda combines earlier motives into a five-voice fugue.
Symphony No. 38 in D major (Prague), K. 504 - first movement
- •This work is nicknamed Prague since it was premiered in that city in 1787.
- •Of all of Mozart’s Symphonies, only three begin with a slow introduction: K. 425, K. 504, K. 543.
- •The allegro following the slow introduction presents a wide variety of melodic ideas.
- •Of the six symphonies from the Vienna years, only the Prague Symphony is in three movements.
- •The second movement is a slow andante in the subdominant and is in sonata form.
Don Giovanni, excerpts: Act I, scenes 1-2
- •The opera, a “dramma giocoso,” premiered in Prague.
- •Da Ponte and Mozart took the legendary character of Don Juan seriously as a rebel against authority.
- •The opera mixes opera seria characters and opera buffa characters.
- •All character types are combined in the brilliant dance music in the finale of Act I.
- •The opera also mixes comic and tragic with supernatural elements.
- •Leporello complains in an opera-buffa style with an ABCBB' form.
- •Donna Anna and Don Giovanni sing in a dramatic opera seria style, while Leporello frets in a buffa style; the form is ABB.
- •The ensuing duel ends in a death, a shocking scene in a comic opera.
- •A powerful trio in F minor laments the turn of events.
- •At the end, Don Giovanni and Leporellorevert to comic banter.
The Magic Flute overture and excerpts: Act III, No. 14
- •This Singspiel was composed in the last year of his life, along with the opera seria La clemenza di Tito.
- •The story contains symbolism, largely drawn from the teachings and ceremonies of Freemasonry.
- •Mozart interweaves a variety of vocal styles.
- •Papageno’s music is simple and strophic.
- •The Queen of the Night, whose music is marked by passion and difficult coloratura, opposes Enlightenment ideals.
Piano Sonata in C minor, Op. 13 (Pathetique) - first movement
- Piano Sonata1797-98
- emotionally moving
- full of pathos suggesting rhetorical gestures
- evokes piano and grief, then resistance
- sonata form
- begins with slow introduction
- the 2 main themes are not pianistic, but symphonic
- The title suggests sufffering and a tragic mode of expression
- the sonata has 3 movements
- 1) passionate first movement begins with a dramatic slow introduction which returns twice during the movement
- 2)serenade middle movement is in A-flat major
- 3)finale returns to stormy mood and key of first movement
- FIRST MOVEMENT
- Strong pathos and emotional content, demonstrative emotions
- VERY STRANGE slow intro
- returns again at the end of the development during recap
- slow intro = unusual for piano sonata, symphonic grandeur
- Exposition - Principal themes = energetic and determined
Piano Trio in C minor, Op. 1 No. 3
- Piano, Violin, and Cello
- Starts in unison, lots of unison following that as well
- BEETHOVEN'S FIRST PUBLISHED WORKS
- feature the piano
- virtuosic pianist of high originality
- quiet 2-measure motive that opens into an expansive exposition of contrasting themes and emotions
- straight forward sonata form
- dedicated to Prince Karl Lichnowsky
Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, Op. 55 (Eroica)
- •Beethoven’s Third Symphony in E-flat major is longer than any previous symphony.
- •The title suggests that the symphony is a celebration of a hero.
- •Beethoven originally named the symphony “Bonaparte,” but reportedly tore up the title page when Napoleon declared himself emperor.
- •The first movement of the Eroica can be seen as a story of challenge, struggle, and final victory.
Fidelio Act II, scenes 1-2
- •Fidelio was first performed in a three-act version late in 1805.
- •Beethoven was persuaded by friends to greatly revise the opera. Early in 1806 the new, two-act version of the opera was presented.
- •The opera was further revised for a performance in 1814. This version was much more successful than its
- •Beethoven’s struggle to find the most appropriate music to open has lead to four different orchestral overtures.
- •Beethoven’s only opera, Fidelio, is based on a rescue plot.
- •The opera glorifies heroism and the humanitarian ideas of the Revolution.
- •Florestan, a nobleman or good intent, is secretly imprisoned by Pizarro
- •Leonore, Florestan’s wife, disguises herself as a young man named Fidelio to infiltrate the jail.
- •She gains the trust of Rocco, who asks Fidelio to accompany him on the sensitive task of digging Florestan’s grave.
- •Fidelio mixes characters of high station and noble purpose with those of low station and comic in their essence.
- •On one side is 1) Florestan, a martyr jailed for his beliefs, 2) Leonore, who risks her life to save her
- love, and 3) Pizarro, a tyrant.
- •On the other is 1) Rocco, a money-obsessed warden, 2) Marcelline, Rocco’s daughter who has comically fallen in love with Fidelio, and 3) Jaquino, a guard who is in love with Marcelline.
String Quartet in C-sharp minor, Op. 131 - first movement
- •The slow tempo and fugal form are unusual for a first movement.
- •The theme begins with a four-note motive ending with a sforzando.
- •The exposition has four statements of the theme. The answer form of the theme is on the subdominant.
- •Later statements of the themes are separated by episodes.
- •The final entrances are in C-sharp minor and include augmentation.
- •The first movement is extremely emotional and uses unusual harmonies.
- •The key areas include E major, G-sharp minor, B major, A major, and D major, all of which are keys of later movements.
String Quartet in C-sharp minor, Op. 131 - second movement
- •Second movement
- •The closing unison C-sharp of the first movement moves up a half step.
- •The structure is sonata rondo, a form typical of final movements.
- The mood is more comic than dramatic
An die ferne Geliebte, No. 6 "Nimm sie hin denn, diese Lieder"
- •Beethoven’s An die ferne Geliebte
- introduced the concept of the song cycle.
- •A song cycle is a set of Lieder grouped into a collection with a unifying characteristic, such as a single poet or a common theme.
- •In these cycles, the songs were meant to be performed in order, enabling the composer to tell a story or convey an emotional progression.
- •Beethoven’s An die ferne Geliebte
- features many weak cadences to convey a sense of Romantic yearning.
Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125, movement 1
- •The 1st movement is in Sonata Form.
- •The movement begins with ambiguous open fifths. Hints of the arpeggiated prime theme occur the 1st violin.
- •The dotted rhythms of the main theme are of a solemn and noble character, descending through a D minor triad.
- •The development section is oddly peaceful, lacking the expected tension and drama.
- •The movement ends with a solemn march over a “lament bass” – suggesting a funeral march.
Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125. movement 2
- •The 2nd movement is a scherzo and trio.
- •Beethoven had abandoned using the term scherzo in work in the middle period.
- •The descending D minor triad of the 1st movement opens the second movement, with surprising strikes in the timpani.
- •The solo timpani is featured throughout the movement.
- •The one place the timpani is not featured is in the D major trio section. The trio is in duple meter and is much shorter than the scherzo.
Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125, movement 3
- •The 3rd movement is in a Ternary form where the internal B section is also a Ternary.
- •The first theme is in B-flat major, while the second theme is in D major.
- •Third relations are expanded upon throughout the movement. The middle section modulates through G major, E-flat major, and C-flat major.
- •The slow tempo and lyrical themes project a sense of serenity without conflict from any significant minor mode sections.
Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125, movement 4
- The 4th movement does not easily fit into
- any formal paradigm. A sequence of variations is the best description.
- The Finale begins with a dissonant passage in the winds and timpani, which Wagner called the “terror fanfare.”
- The cellos and basses then present an extended “instrumental recitative.”
- These passages alternate with quotations from the main themes of the previous three movements.
- •The winds begin the “Ode to Joy” theme, which is then taken up by the cellos and basses.
- •This theme is then subject to a set of orchestral variations.
- •The “terror fanfare” returns, ending the orchestral variations.
- •This is followed by a Baritone recitative on the same material as the cellos and basses of the opening
- •The “Ode to Joy” theme is then taken up by the chorus.