Biology Exam 2

  1. Smallest unit of life:
  2. How do surface area, volume, and size affect a cell's efficiency?
    • Lower SA:Vol. ratio: big size and low efficiency
    • Higher SA:Vol. ratio: small size, higher efficiency
  3. Plant exclusive features
    • Central vacuole
    • Chloroplasts
    • Cell wall
  4. Animal exclusive features
    • Lysosome
    • Centriole
    • flagella (sometimes)
  5. Eukaryotes
    big complex structure, has nucleus and organelles
  6. Prokaryotes
    small, simple structure, no membrane-bound organelles.
  7. Special features of Prokaryote:
    • nucleoid
    • cell wall
    • flagella
  8. Nucleoid
    clump of nucleic acids
  9. Nucleus
    holds genetic material (nucleic acids)
  10. Rough ER
    studded with ribosomes that synthesize protein (rough= ribosomes)
  11. Smooth ER
    no ribosomes; makes lipids
  12. Golgi Apparatus
    modifies proteins and lipids, ships them within the cell and exports outside the cell.
  13. Vesicle
    membrane covered transport packages
  14. Lysosome
    contain lytic enzymes that digest large molecules, recycle cellular resources, and can program cell death
  15. Peroxisomes
    similar to lysosomes, but in plants
  16. Vacuole
    large membranous sacs for storage and breakdown
  17. Central Vacuole
    plants only; stores water, nutrients, pigments and waste
  18. Chloroplasts
    plants only; converts light energy to chemical energy (photosynthesis), green due to chlorophyll
  19. Mitochondria
    converts energy from food to usable energy for cell (cellular respiration)
  20. Cytoskeliton
    maintain cell shape, assists in movement
  21. Cytoplasm
    gell-like filling of cell
  22. Fluid-Mosaic model
    • 1) phospholipid bilayer: fluidy portion
    • 2) cholesterol: balances out fluidity of phospholipid bilayer
    • 3) membrane porteins: mosaic part
  23. Phospholipid Bilayer
    Hydrophilic heads (phosphate) and hydrophobic tails (fatty acid tails); is selectively permeable
  24. What does cholesterol do for the membrane?
    stiffens the membrane
  25. Passive transport
    • doesn't require ATP
    • goes with concentration gradient (high to low)
    • can require a carrier protein (facilitated transport)
  26. Active transport
    • requires ATP
    • goes against concentration gradient (low to high)
    • requires a protein powered by ATP
  27. Diffusion
    movement of small nonpolar molecules
  28. Osmosis
    movement of water
  29. Facilitated transport
    movement of ions, amino acids, glucose, and water
  30. Aquaporins
    proteins that help transport water
  31. Tonicity
    ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water
  32. Isotonic
    concentration in and of the cell is the same
  33. Hypotonic
    concentration outside of cell is greater than inside; waters flows into cell
  34. Hypertonic
    concentration inside cell is greater than outside; water flows out of cell
  35. Membrane-Assisted transport
    movement of BIG molecules through vesicles
  36. Exocytosis
    membrane-assisted transport out of cell
  37. Endocytosis
    membrane-assisted transport into cell
  38. Energy
    the capacity to do work
  39. Kinetic energy
    energy of motion; mechanical
  40. Potential energy
    stored energy; chemical
  41. First law of Thermodynamics
    energy can't be created or destroyed, but it can be changed from one form to another
  42. Second law of Thermodynamics
    when energy is changed from one form to another, there is a loss of usable energy; waste energy goes to increase disorder
  43. Metabolism
    sum of cellular chemical reactions
  44. Exergonic reation
    release energy out
  45. Endergonic reaction
    absorbe energy in
  46. Substrate
    reactants that bind to enzymes
  47. Energy of activation
    energy needed to start a reaction
  48. Characteristics of Enzymes
    • enzymes are specific for 1 substrate/reaction
    • 1:1 match, enzymes named after substrate
    • are recyclable
  49. pH affect on enzymes
    enzymes are pH sensitive and will only work in certain pH's
  50. Cofactors/coenzymes
    help enzymes work better
  51. Inhibitor (enzyme)
    makes enzyme work worse
  52. Competitive inhibitor
    blocks area where substrate should go on enzyme
  53. Noncompetitive inhibitor
    binds to enzyme at the allosteric site
  54. Feedback inhibition
    the end product of a pathway inhibits the pathway's first enzyme
  55. How many kinds of substrates can bind to an enzyme?
  56. Chemical equation for photosynthesis
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O --(light)--> C6H12O6 + 6O2
  57. Stomata
    little pores on underside of leaf to help CO2 to enter the plant
  58. Mesophyll Tissue
    fleshy part of leaft
  59. Thylakoids
    discs in chloroplasts filled with chlorophyll
  60. Stroma
    fluid filling in chloroplast
  61. What to processes make up photosynthesis?
    Light reaction and Calvin cycle
  62. NADPH
    electron carrier and coenzyme
  63. Reduction reaction
    gain electrons
  64. Oxidation reaction
    lose electrons
  65. LEO says GER
    • Lose Electron: Oxidation
    • Gain Electron: Reduction
  66. G3P
    3 carbon sugar used to make glucose (1/2 of glucose)
  67. ATP
    energy molecule
  68. ATP Synthase
    enzyme that makes ATP
  69. Light Reaction steps
    • 1) capture light energy w/ chlorophyll which excites and electron (released)
    • 2) water splits to replace lost electron and produces oxygen
    • 3) excited electron passed down ETC
    • 4) create H+ gradient (active transport)
    • 5) NADP+ accepts electrons to become NADPH
    • 6) produce ATP
  70. Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
  71. Calvin cycle
    • 1) incorporate/fix CO2
    • 2) use up NADPH and ATP
    • 3) make G3P
  72. Importance of NADPH and ATP
    they connect the light reaction and Calvin cycle
  73. Photorespiration
    a wasteful process that produces no ATP or sugars
  74. C4 plant
    different arrangement of cells and different carbon molecules in Calvin cycle
  75. CAM plant
    different schedule, only open stomata at night
  76. Anaerobic respiration
    • provides rapid burst of ATP
    • regenerates NAD+ for glycolysis
  77. Chemical equation for Cellular Respiration
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 ----> 6CO2 + 6H2O
  78. Who does Cellular Respiration, plants or animals?
  79. All organisms have what organelle?
  80. 3 Phases of Cellular Respiration and their places of occuence
    • 1) Glycolysis: cytoplasm
    • prep reaction
    • 2) Citric Acid cycle: mitochondrion
    • 3) ETC: inside inner mitochondrial membrane (fold)
  81. Process of Glycolysis
    glucose splits in half ---> 2 pyruvates (3 carbon sugars) ----> make NADH, ATP (electron carrier)
  82. Prep reaction after Glycolysis
    pyruvate ----> Acetyl-CoA (2 carbon molecule), then enters mitochondria
  83. Steps of the Citric Acid cycle
    • 1) Acetyl-CoA enters cycle
    • 2) Carbons gained, lost, and modified
    • 3) Yeild ATP, NADH, FADH2
  84. Steps of ETC in Cellular Respiration
    • 1) NADH oxidized ----> NAD+
    • FADH2 oxidized ----> FAD+
    • 2) electrons passed down ETC
    • 3) create H+ gradient
    • 4) O2 accepts electron ----> H2O
    • 5) produce ATP (a lot!) couple H+ gradient w/ ATP synthase
  85. What electron carriers connect the 3 stages of Cellular Respiration?
    NADH and FADH
  86. What step in Cellular Respiration makes the most ATP?
  87. Affects of Anaerobic Respiration
    • no final electron acceptor in ETC
    • NADH can't recycle back to NAD+
    • glycolysis stops because NAD+ is required
  88. Where do these happen:
    -Lactic acid fermentation
    -Ethanol alcohol fermentation
    • Lactic acid: muscle cells
    • Ethanol: yeast cells
Card Set
Biology Exam 2
read title