ANTH2500 Ex3 2

  1. Characteristics of the Archaic period (Texas)?
    Early- 4
    Late- 5
    • Early- wet; many bison, plants, people
    • Middle- drought; pop drop
    • Late- wetter; floodplain expliotation; local raw materials; more conflict; first cemeteries
  2. hand and eye; bilibed arrow; solar cross; conch shell georgettes; copper plates/axes; effigy pipes; weeping eye; severed heads; swashtica; flat-topped earth mounds;
    • Southeastern Ceremonial Complex/
    • Southern Death Cult
  3. assortment of ceremonial objects that occurs in the graves of high-status Missippian individuals. Ritual exchance of these artifacts crosscut the boundaries of many distinctive local cultures.
    "Southern Death Cult"
  4. Missippian
    • eastern U.S.
    • 1200-500BP
    • maize agriculture
  5. sacrifice of human servent
    at a...
    • retainer
    • retinue burial
  6. How is archeological space divided? 2
    • into culture areas
    • subdivided into traditions or archeological cultures
  7. geographic regions that share similarities in material remains
    culture areas
  8. how is archeological space divided?
    • into periods/horizons
    • (Paleoindian
    • Early Archaic
    • Middle Archaic
    • Late Archaic
    • Late Prehistoric I, II)
  9. How is archeological space-time divided?
    into phases (but "who cares")
  10. block of time; assemblages (all items of one kind from one stratum or location)are clustered into components (assemblages belonging to a single culture and time) synthasized across multiple sites to create...
    phases (but who cares?)
  11. a collection of artifacts of one or several classes of materials (stone, tools, ceramics, bones) that come from a defined context such as a site, feature, or stratum
  12. An archeological construct consisting of a stratum or set of strata that are presumed to be culturally homogenous. A set of these from various sites in a region will make up a phase
  13. collection of artifacts recovered from a site {seperate catagories; flakes, bone ect}
  14. culturally homogenous unit recovered from a single site
  15. what kind of sites usually have mixed components?
    terraced sites
  16. similar form across space, time, culture
    formal analogy
  17. cases are related by similar settelment systems, economies, environment, or they are of the same cultural descent; entails formal analogy
    relational analogy
  18. entail necesscary links between attributes or features and their interpretations 2
    • analogies
    • mid-level thoery
  19. A hopi word that loosely translates as "place of emergence." The original sipapu is the place where the Hopi are said to have emerged into this world from the underground. Also small pits in kivas through which communication with the supernatural world takes place.
  20. Modern Hopi related to
  21. How is taphonomy used archeologically? 2
    • mid-range research diciplines
    • (linking arguments)
  22. to infer human behavior from material remains
    to link material remains to either natural processes or human behavior
    to eliminate natural processes to illuminate human behavior
    use of taphonomy in archeology
  23. a best guess
  24. In faunal analysis, the classification of a skeletal element to a taxonomic category-species, genus, family, or order
  25. In faunal analysis, a specific skeletal part of the body-for example, humerus of sternum; anitomicalpart of the body
  26. The raw number of identified bones (specimens) per species.
    NISP (number of identified specimens)
  27. Smallest number of particular bones; (parts) such as ribs vs. legs
    MNE (minimum number of elements)
  28. The smallest number of individuals necesscary to account for all identified bones.
    MNI (minimum number of individuals)
  29. MNI, Bison and Antelope, 4 male, 4 female, 3 sub-adults, 5 antelope, tooth eruption, longbones, ephiohisealeal fusion, marrow from toes, carried meaty legs back to camp

    Buchery-Bone Grease
    Seasonality-End of Winter, Early Spring
    Agate Basin site
  30. Camelidae (lamas), upland-no long bones; lowland village- lond bones

    Trade Patterns- Ch'arki
    Chavin de Huantar
  31. Quids, cordage, coporlites (containing fish, birds, insects, snails, pinion, and estradol, progesterone)
    Hidden Cave
  32. expectorated peices of chewed plants
  33. tiny silica particles contained in plants
    plant stone
  34. dessicated feces, often containing marcobotanical remains, pollon, and the remains of small animals
  35. the eariliest well established Native American culture, distributed through much of North America
    • Clovis
    • 13,000-12,900BP
  36. How do we recognise plants in Archeological sites?
    • microbotanical remains
    • macrobotanical remains
    • corprolites
    • make-up of bone
    • pollon
  37. the technique through which the fossil pollon grains and spores from archeological sites are studied

    used to reconstruct the environment, show climate change, and diet
  38. os coxae sexual markers 4
    • greater sciatic notch
    • subpubic angle
    • overall shape (V-male H-female)
    • sacrum (curved in and under-male; straighter-female)
  39. age from bone?
    • pubic symphysis-sympheseal face
    • ephiphesial fusion (long bones)
    • dental eruption
    • tooth loss/wear
    • degredation
  40. a symptom of iron defencicy anemia in which the skull takes on a porous appearance
    "spongy bone"
    porotic hyperstosis
  41. A symptom of iron defencicy anemia in which the bone of the upper eye sockets takes on a spongy appearance.
    formative years
    cribra orbitalia
  42. Horizontal lines near the ends of long bones indicating episodes of physiological stress
    Growth arrest lines
    Harris Lines
  43. Horizontal linear defects in tooth enamel indicating episodes of physiological stress.
    Growth arrest lines
    enamel hypoplasias
  44. How do we determine seasonality?
    • faunal tooth eruption/birthing patterns
    • faunal migration patterns
    • faunal "seasonal rounds"-antlers, bone content, etc
    • pollon analysis
    • corprolite content
Card Set
ANTH2500 Ex3 2
ANTH2500 Ex3 2